0
Research Papers

Linear Parameter-Varying Model of an Electro-Hydraulic Variable Valve Actuator for Internal Combustion Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Huan Li

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: huanli@msu.edu

Ying Huang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: hy111@bit.edu.cn

Guoming Zhu

Fellow ASME
Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: zhug@egr.msu.edu

Zheng Lou

Jiangsu Gongda Power Technologies Ltd., Co.,
Changshu 215513, China
e-mail: gongda.lou@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received December 21, 2016; final manuscript received June 21, 2017; published online August 29, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Zongxuan Sun.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 140(1), 011005 (Aug 29, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: DS-16-1606; doi: 10.1115/1.4037286 History: Received December 21, 2016; Revised June 21, 2017

This paper presents a novel linear parameter-varying (LPV) model of an electro-hydraulic variable valve actuator (EHVVA) for internal combustion engines that is capable of continuously varying valve timing with dual-lift. The dual-lift is realized mechanically through a hydraulic lift control sleeve; valve opening (VO) terminal and closing seating velocities are regulated using a top or bottom snubber; and opening and closing timings, as well as lift profile area, are controlled by the valve actuation timing and hydraulic supply pressure. First, nonlinear mathematical system model is developed based on the Newton's law, orifice flow equation, and fluid constitutive law, where the fluid dynamics of the actuation solenoid valve, actuation piston, passages, and orifices, that influence the engine valve profile, are considered in detail. Second, to have an LPV control-oriented model, the order of nonlinear model is reduced and subsequently transformed into an LPV model with minimal deviation by carefully considering the system nonlinearities, time delay, and time-varying parameters. Calibration and validation experiments for both nonlinear and LPV models were performed on the test bench under different operational conditions. The key time-varying parameters, the time constant of the actuation piston top pressure and the discharge coefficient, are highly nonlinear as functions of temperature-sensitive fluid viscosity and are determined using the test data through the least-squares optimization. With the identified and calibrated model parameters, simulation results of both nonlinear and LPV models are in good agreement with the experimental ones under different operational conditions.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Chan, C. C. , 1999, “ The Past, Present, and Future of Electric Vehicle Development,” IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), Hong Kong, July 27–29, pp. 11–13.
Situ, L. , 2009, “ Electric Vehicle Development: The Past, Present & Future,” Third International Conference on Power Electronics Systems and Applications (PESA), Hong Kong, China, May 20–22, pp. 1–3 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5228601/.
Lancefield, T. , 2003, “ The Influence of Variable Valve Actuation on the Part Load Fuel Economy of a Modern Light-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2003-01-0028.
Tai, C. , Tsao, T. , Schörn, N. , and Levin, M. , 2002, “ Increasing Torque Output From a Turbodiesel With Camless Valve Train,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-1108.
Negurescu, N. , Pana, C. , Popa, M. , and Racovitza, A. , 2001, “ Variable Valve Control Systems for Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-0671.
Zhang, S. , Huisjen, A. , Zhu, G. , and Schock, H. , 2016, “ Improvement in the Combustion Mode Transition for an HCCI Capable SI Engine,” Proc Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 230(2), pp. 215–228. [CrossRef]
Flierl, R. , Paulov, M. , Knecht, A. , and Hannibal, W. , 2008, “ Investigations With a Mechanically Fully Variable Valve Train on a 2.0l Turbo Charged Four Cylinder Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1352.
Flierl, R. , Hofman, R. , Landerl, C. , Melcher, T. , and Steyer, H. , 2001, “ Der neue BMW Vierzylindermotor mit Valvetronic—Teil 1: Konzept und konstruktiver Aufbau (The New BMW Four Cylinder Engine With Valvetronic—Part 1: Concept and Design),” MTZ Motortech. Z., 62(6), pp. 450–463. [CrossRef]
Dugdale, P. H. , Rademacher, R. J. , Price, B. R. , Subhedar, J. W. , and Duguay, R. L. , 2005, “ Ecotec 2.4L VVT: A Variant of GM's Global 4-Cylinder Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-1941.
Ren, Z. , and Zhu, G. , 2011, “ Integrated System ID and Control Design for an IC Engine Variable Valve Timing System,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 133(2), p. 021012. [CrossRef]
Ren, Z. , and Zhu, G. , 2013, “ Modeling and Control of an Electrical Variable Valve Timing Actuator,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 136(2), p. 021015. [CrossRef]
Zhang, S. , Song, R. , Zhu, G. , and Schock, H. , 2017, “ Model-Based Control for Mode Transition Between SI and HCCI Combustion,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 139(4), p. 041004. [CrossRef]
Lou, Z. , 2007, “ Camless Variable Valve Actuation Designs With Two-Spring Pendulum and Electrohydraulic Latching,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-1295.
Gillella, P. , and Sun, Z. , 2011, “ Design, Modeling, and Control of a Camless Valve Actuation System With Internal Feedback,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 16(3), pp. 527–539. [CrossRef]
Sun, Z. , and Kuo, T. W. , 2010, “ Transient Control of Electro-Hydraulic Fully Flexible Engine Valve Actuation System,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 18(3), pp. 613–621. [CrossRef]
Sugimoto, C. , Sakai, H. , Umemoto, A. , Shimizu, Y. , and Ozawa, H. , 2004, “ Study on Variable Valve Timing System Using Electromagnetic Mechanism,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1869.
Theobald, M. A. , Lequesne, B. , and Henry, R. R. , 1994, “ Control of Engine Load Via Electromagnetic Operating Actuator,” SAE Paper No. 940816.
Hoffmann, W. , Peterson, K. , and Stefanopoulou, A. G. , 2003, “ Iterative Learning Control for Soft Landing of Electromechanical Valve Actuator in Camless Engines,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 11(2), pp. 174–184. [CrossRef]
Watson, J. P. , and Wakeman, R. J. , 2005, “ Simulation of a Pneumatic Valve Actuation System for Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2005-01-0771.
Lou, Z. , Deng, Q. , Wen, S. , Zhang, Y. , Yu, M. , Sun, M. , and Zhu, G. , 2013, “ Progress in Camless Variable Valve Actuation With Two-Spring Pendulum and Electrohydraulic Latching,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 6(1), pp. 319–326. [CrossRef]
Lou, Z. , Wen, S. , Qian, J. , Xu, H. , Zhu, G. , and Sun, M. , 2015, “ Camless Variable Valve Actuator With Two Discrete Lifts,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-0324.
Richeson, W. E. , and Erickson, F. L. , 1989, “ Pneumatic Actuator With Permanent Magnet Control Valve Latching,” Magnavox, Torrance, CA, U.S. Patent No. 4,852,528.
Ma, J. , Zhu, G. , and Schock, H. , 2010, “ A Dynamic Model of an Electro-Pneumatic Valve Actuator for Internal Combustion Engines,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 132(2), p. 021007. [CrossRef]
Ma, J. , Zhu, G. , and Schock, H. , 2011, “ Adaptive Control of a Pneumatic Valve Actuator for an Internal Combustion Engine,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 19(4), pp. 730–743. [CrossRef]
Ma, J. , Zhu, G. , Hartsig, A. , and Schock, H. , 2008, “ Model-Based Predictive Control of an Electro-Pneumatic Exhaust Valve for Internal Combustion Engines,” American Control Conference (ACC), Seattle, WA, June 11–13, pp. 298–305.
Zhang, F. , Grigoriadis, K. M. , Franchek, M. A. , and Makki, I . H. , 2007, “ Linear Parameter-Varying Lean Burn Air–Fuel Ratio Control for a Spark Ignition Engine,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 129(4), pp. 404–414. [CrossRef]
White, A. , Choi, J. , and Zhu, G. , 2013, “ Dynamic, Output-Feedback, Gain-Scheduling Control of an Electric Variable Valve Timing System,” American Control Conference (ACC), Washington, DC, June 17–19, pp. 3619–3624.
White, A. , Ren, Z. , Zhu, G. , and Choi, J. , 2013, “ Mixed H2/H Observer-Based LPV Control of a Hydraulic Engine Cam Phasing Actuator,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 21(1), pp. 229–238. [CrossRef]
Wei, X. , and Re, L. , 2007, “ Gain Scheduled H Control for Air Path Systems of Diesel Engines Using LPV Techniques,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 15(3), pp. 406–415. [CrossRef]
Zope, R. , Mohammadpour, J. , Grigoriadis, K. , and Franchek, M. , 2010, “ Robust Fueling Strategy for an SI Engine Modeled as an Linear Parameter Varying Time-Delayed System,” American Control Conference (ACC), Baltimore, MD, June 30–July 2, pp. 4634–4639.
Partington, J. , 2004, “ Some Frequency-Domain Approaches to the Model Reduction of Delay Systems,” Annu. Rev. Control, 28(1), pp. 65–73. [CrossRef]
White, F. , 2010, Fluid Mechanics, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, New York, Chap. 6.
Wu, F. , and Karolos, M. G. , 2001, “ LPV Systems With Parameter-Varying Time Delays: Analysis and Control,” Automatica, 37(2), pp. 221–229. [CrossRef]
White, A. , Zhu, G. , and Choi, J. , 2013, Linear Parameter Varying Control for Engineering Applications, Springer-Verlag, London, Chap. 2. [CrossRef]
Nocedal, J. , and Wright, S. J. , 1999, Numerical Optimization, Springer-Verlag, New York, Chap. 4. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Engine valve dynamic at high lift (initial  Ph = 7.2 MPa, 22 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Equivalent time delay under different supply pressures and temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Least-squares optimization results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental and model valve lift profiles for tests 1–6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Experimental and model valve opening/closing timing for all tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Soft seating with switch valve on (test 6) and off (test 7)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Experimental and model valve responses under different temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Valve opening and closing responses under different back pressure for tests 12–15

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In