Technical Brief

PI-Controller Design for Combustion-Timing Feedback, from n-Heptane to iso-Octane in Compression-Ignition Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Gabriel Ingesson

Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden

Lianhao Yin

Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Sweden

Rolf Johansson

Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden

Per Tunestal

Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University, Sweden

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4037834 History: Received November 30, 2016; Revised August 16, 2017


The problem of designing robust and noise-insensitive PI controllers for pressure-sensor based combustion-timing control was studied through simulation. Different primary reference fuels (PRF) and operating conditions were studied. The simulations were done using a physics-based, control-oriented model with an empirical ignition-delay correlation. It was found that the controllable region, in-between the zero-gain region for early injection timings and the misfire region for late injection timings is strongly PRF dependent. As a result, it was necessary to adjust intake temperature to compensate for the difference in fuel reactivity prior to the controller design. With adjusted intake temperature, PRF dependent negative-temperature coefficient behavior gave different system characteristics for the different fuels. The PI-controller design was accomplished by solving the optimization problem of maximizing disturbance rejection and tracking performance subject to constraints on robustness and measurement-noise sensitivity. Optimal controller gains were found to be limited by the high system gain at late combustion timings and high-load conditions, furthermore, the measurement-noise sensitivity was found to be higher at the low-load operating points where the ignition delay is more sensitive to variations in load and intake-conditions. The controller-gain restrictions were found to vary for the different PRFs, the optimal gains for higher PRFs were lower due to a higher system gain, whereas the measurement-noise sensitivity was found to be higher for lower PRFs.

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