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Research Papers

Switching Gain-Scheduled Proportional–Integral–Derivative Electronic Throttle Control for Automotive Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Arman Zandi Nia

SNC-Lavalin Richmond,
Vancouver, BC V6X1W5, Canada
e-mail: arman.zandinia@gmail.com

Ryozo Nagamune

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada
e-mail: nagamune@mech.ubc.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received December 15, 2016; final manuscript received December 4, 2017; published online March 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Junmin Wang.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 140(7), 071015 (Mar 07, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: DS-16-1599; doi: 10.1115/1.4039152 History: Received December 15, 2016; Revised December 04, 2017

This paper proposes an application of the switching gain-scheduled (S-GS) proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control technique to the electronic throttle control (ETC) problem in automotive engines. For the S-GS PID controller design, a published linear parameter-varying (LPV) model of the electronic throttle valve (ETV) is adopted whose dynamics change with both the throttle valve velocity variation and the battery voltage fluctuation. The designed controller consists of multiple GS PID controllers assigned to local subregions defined for varying throttle valve velocity and battery voltage. Hysteresis switching logic is employed for switching between local GS PID controllers based on the operating point. The S-GS PID controller design problem is formulated as a nonconvex optimization problem and tackled by solving its convex subproblems iteratively. Experimental results demonstrate overall superiority of the S-GS PID controller to conventional controllers in reference tracking performance of the throttle valve under various scenarios.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Function approximation of Fcsgnθ˙

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Fig. 2

Lumped-element model of ETV

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Fig. 4

Feedback system with S-GS PID controller

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Fig. 5

Feedback system with an augmented LPV plant Ggen(ρ) and the S-GS vector KS−PID(ρ)

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Fig. 6

Experimental test bench of ETC system

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Fig. 7

Partitions of the parameter variation region P

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Fig. 9

Static load test showing the throttle valve angle as the motor torque is linearly increased (dots near left slope) and subsequently linearly decreased (dots near right slope)

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Fig. 10

Structure of the nonlinear observer

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Fig. 8

Experimental results with PID (dotted line), SMC (dash-dotted line), LPV (thin line) and S-LPV (thick line): (a) case 1: large opening, (b) case 1: large closing, (c) case 2: small opening, (d) case 2: small closing, (e) case 3: LH crossing, opening, (f) case 3: LH crossing, closing, (g) case 4: battery voltage increase: step change from 7.2 V to 13.2 V at 0.5 s, and (h) case 4: battery voltage decrease: step change from 13.2 V to 7.2 V at 0.5 s

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