Research Papers

A Predictive Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Powertrain With a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Yi Huo

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
e-mail: huoy@mcmaster.ca

Fengjun Yan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
e-mail: yanfeng@mcmaster.ca

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received September 26, 2017; final manuscript received January 23, 2018; published online March 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Beshah Ayalew.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 140(6), 061017 (Mar 20, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: DS-17-1487; doi: 10.1115/1.4039216 History: Received September 26, 2017; Revised January 23, 2018

This paper proposes an energy management strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with a turbocharged diesel engine. By introducing turbocharger to the HEV powertrain, air path dynamics of engine becomes extremely complex and critical to engine torque response during transient processes. Traditional strategy that adopts steady-state-map based engine model may not work properly in this situation as a result of its incapability of accurately capturing torque response. Thus, in this paper, a physical-law based air path model is utilized to simulate turbo “lag” phenomenon and predict air charge in cylinder. Meanwhile, engine torque boundaries are obtained on the basis of predicted air charge. A receding horizon structure is then implemented in optimal supervisory controller to generate torque split strategy for the HEV. Simulations are conducted for three cases: the first one is rule-based torque-split energy management strategy without optimization; the second one is online optimal control strategy using map-based engine model; and the third one is online optimal control strategy combining air path loop model. The comparison of the results shows that the proposed third method has the best fuel economy of all and demonstrates considerable improvements of fuel saving on the other two methods.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Emadi, A. , Rajashekara, K. , Williamson, S. S. , and Lukic, S. M. , 2005, “ Topological Overview of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicular Power System Architectures and Configurations,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 54(3), pp. 763–770. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. , Arshad-Ali, K. , Roeleveld, J. , and Emadi, A. , 2016, “ State-of-the-Art Electrified Powertrains—Hybrid, Plug-In, and Electric Vehicles,” Int. J. Powertrains, 5(1), pp. 1–29. [CrossRef]
Pisu, P. , and Rizzoni, G. , 2007, “ A Comparative Study of Supervisory Control Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 15(3), pp. 506–518.
Liu, J. , and Peng, H. , 2008, “ Modeling and Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Vehicle,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 16(6), pp. 1242–1251. [CrossRef]
Kim, N. , and Rousseau, A. , 2012, “ Sufficient Conditions of Optimal Control Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 226(9), pp. 1160–1170. [CrossRef]
Musardo, C. , Rizzoni, G. , Guezennec, Y. , and Staccia, B. , 2005, “ A-ECMS: An Adaptive Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management,” Eur. J. Control, 11(4–5), pp. 509–524. [CrossRef]
Paganelli, G. , Delprat, S. , Guerra, T. , Rimaux, J. , and Santin, J. , 2002, “ Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains,” IEEE 55th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring 2002), Birmingham, AL, May 6–9, pp. 2076–2081.
Serrao, L. , Onori, S. , and Rizzoni, G. , 2011, “ A Comparative Analysis of Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, 133(3), p. 031012. [CrossRef]
Yuan, Z. , Teng, L. , Fengchun, S. , and Peng, H. , 2013, “ Comparative Study of Dynamic Programming and Pontryagin's Minimum Principle on Energy Management for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” Energies, 6(12), pp. 2305–2318. [CrossRef]
Borhan, H. , Vahidi, A. , Phillips, A. M. , Kuang, M. L. , Kolmanovsky, I. V. , and Di Cairano, S. , 2012, “ MPC-Based Energy Management of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 20(3), pp. 593–603. [CrossRef]
Kermani, S. , Delprat, S. , Guerra, T. M. , Trigui, R. , and Jeanneret, B. , 2012, “ Predictive Energy Management for Hybrid Vehicle,” Control Eng. Pract., 20(4), pp. 408–420. [CrossRef]
Sun, C. , Hu, X. , Moura, S. J. , and Sun, F. , 2015, “ Velocity Predictors for Predictive Energy Management in Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 23(3), pp. 1197–1204. [CrossRef]
Assanis, D. N. , Filipi, Z. S. , Fiveland, S. B. , and Syrimis, M. , 2003, “ A Predictive Ignition Delay Correlation Under Steady-State and Transient Operation of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 125(2), pp. 450–457. [CrossRef]
Lindenkamp, Nils, Claude-Pascal Stöber-Schmidt, and Peter Eilts, 2009, “ Strategies for Reducing NOx-and Particulate Matter Emissions in Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1305.
Kim, N. , Cha, S. , and Peng, H. , 2011, “ Optimal Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 19(5), pp. 1279–1287. [CrossRef]
Eriksson, L. , 2007, “ Modeling and Control of Turbocharged SI and DI Engines,” Oil Gas Sci. Technol., 62(4), pp. 523–538. [CrossRef]
Sharma, R. , Nesic, D. , and Manzie, C. , 2009, “ Control Oriented Modeling of Turbocharged (TC) Spark Ignition (SI) Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-0684.
Sivertsson, M. , and Eriksson, L. , 2014, “ Optimal Transient Control Trajectories in Diesel-Electric Systems-Part I: Modeling, Problem Formulation, and Engine Properties,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(2), p. 021601. [CrossRef]
Danninger, A. , Bachinger, M. , Stolz, M. , and Horn, M. , 2014, “ Online Calculation of Diesel Engine Torque Dynamics,” IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA 2014), Juan Les Antibes, France, Oct. 8–10, pp. 669–674.
Baumann, B. , Washington, G. , Glenn, B. , and Rizzoni, G. , 2000, “ Mechatronic Design and Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 5(1), pp. 58–72. [CrossRef]
Lin, C.-C. , Peng, H. , Grizzle, J. W. , and Kang, J.-M. , 2003, “ Power Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Truck,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 11(6), pp. 839–849. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Torque and fuel consumption behavior of a turbocharged engine responding to full load input at constant engine speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

P2 hybrid powertrain architecture with a turbocharged diesel engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A simple equivalent circuit of a battery

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Compressor flow and efficiency map

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Turbine flow and efficiency map

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Brake specific fuel consumption map in steady-state with respect to engine speed and load

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Control architecture of proposed HEV powertrain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The flowchart of MPCSC implementation in a prediction horizon

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Vehicle speed tracking performance of three strategies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison of engine speed and transmission input speed for three strategies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Engine demand torque and actual torque comparison in three strategies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of total requested power from driver demand for the three strategies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of fuel injection mass per cycle for three strategies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of electric motor torque for the three strategies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of SOC trajectory for three strategies

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison of fuel consumption for three strategies




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In