0
Technical Brief

A Backlash Compensator for Drivability Improvement Via Real-Time Model Predictive Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Cristian Rostiti

Center for Automotive Research,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43212
e-mail: rostiti.1@osu.edu

Yuxing Liu

Center for Automotive Research,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43212
e-mail: liu.2350@buckeyemail.osu.edu

Marcello Canova

Center for Automotive Research,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43212
e-mail: canova.1@osu.edu

Stephanie Stockar

Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: stockar@psu.edu

Gang Chen, Hussein Dourra, Michael Prucka

FCA US LLC,
1000 Chrysler Drive,
Auburn Hills, MI 48326

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received August 9, 2017; final manuscript received March 1, 2018; published online May 2, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ardalan Vahidi.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 140(10), 104501 (May 02, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: DS-17-1405; doi: 10.1115/1.4039562 History: Received August 09, 2017; Revised March 01, 2018

Nonlinear dynamics in the transmission and drive shafts of automotive powertrains, such as backlash, induce significant torque fluctuations at the wheels during tip-in and tip-out transients, deteriorating drivability. Several strategies are currently present in production vehicles to mitigate those effects. However, most of them are based on open-loop filtering of the driver torque demand, leading to sluggish acceleration performance. To improve the torque management algorithms for drivability and customer acceptability, the powertrain controller must be able to compensate for the wheel torque fluctuations without penalizing the vehicle response. This paper presents a novel backlash compensator for automotive drivetrain, realized via real-time model predictive control (MPC). Starting from a high-fidelity driveline model, the MPC-based compensator is designed to mitigate the drive shaft torque fluctuations by modifying the nominal spark timing during a backlash traverse event. Experimental tests were conducted with the compensator integrated into the engine electronic control unit (ECU) of a production passenger vehicle. Tip-in transients at low-gear conditions were considered to verify the ability of the compensator to reduce the torque overshoot when backlash crossing occurs.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Nordin, M. , and Gutman, P.-O. , 2002, “ Controlling Mechanical Systems With Backlash—A Survey,” Automatica, 38(10), pp. 1633–1649. [CrossRef]
Tao, G. , and Kokotovic, P. V. , 1993, “ Adaptive Control of Systems With Backlash,” Automatica, 29(2), pp. 323–335. [CrossRef]
Orlov, Y. , Aguilar, L. , and Cadiou, J. , 2003, “ Switched Chattering Control vs. Backlash/Friction Phenomena in Electrical Servo-Motors,” Int. J. Control, 76(9–10), pp. 959–967. [CrossRef]
Aguilar, L. , Orlov, Y. , Cadiou, J. , and Merzouki, R. , 2007, “ Nonlinear H-Output Regulation of a Nonminimum Phase Servomechanism With Backlash,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 129(4), pp. 544–549. [CrossRef]
Ponce, I. U. , Orlov, Y. , Aguilar, L. T. , and Álvarez, J. , 2016, “ Nonsmooth H Synthesis of Non-Minimum-Phase Servo-Systems With Backlash,” Control Eng. Pract., 46, pp. 77–84. [CrossRef]
Ezal, K. , Kokotovic, P. V. , and Tao, G. , 1997, “ Optimal Control of Tracking Systems With Backlash and Flexibility,” 36th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, (CDC), San Diego, CA, Dec. 10–12, pp. 1749–1754.
Lagerberg, A. , and Egardt, B. , 2005, “ Model Predictive Control of Automotive Powertrains With Backlash,” IFAC Proc. Vol., 38(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Templin, P. , and Egardt, B. , 2011, “ A Powertrain LQR-Torque Compensator With Backlash Handling,” Oil Gas Sci. Technol., 66(4), pp. 645–654. [CrossRef]
Nordin, M. , Galic', J. , and Gutman, P.-O. , 1997, “ New Models for Backlash and Gear Play,” Int. J. Adaptive Control Signal Process., 11(1), pp. 49–63. [CrossRef]
Lagerberg, A. , and Egardt, B. , 2003, “ Backlash Gap Position Estimation in Automotive Powertrains,” European Control Conference (ECC), Cambridge, UK, Sept. 1–4, pp. 2292–2297.
Lagerberg, A. , and Egardt, B. , 2003, “ Estimation of Backlash in Automotive Powertrains an Experimental Validation,” Modeling and Control of Economic Systems 2001 Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 47.
Eriksson, L. , Nielsen, L. , Brugård, J. , Bergström, J. , Pettersson, F. , and Andersson, P. , 2002, “ Modeling of a Turbocharged Si Engine,” Annu. Rev. Control, 26(1), pp. 129–137. [CrossRef]
Canova, M. , Fiorani, P. , Gambarotta, A. , and Tonetti, M. , 2005, “A Real-Time Model of a Small Turbocharged Multi-Jet Diesel Engine: Application and Validation,” SAE Paper No. 2005-24-065.
Guzzella, L. , and Onder, C. , 2009, Introduction to Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engine Systems, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.
Livshiz, M. , Kao, M. , and Will, A. , 2004, “ Validation and Calibration Process of Powertrain Model for Engine Torque Control Development,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0902.
Lagerberg, A. , and Egardt, B. S. , 2003, “ Estimation of Backlash With Application to Automotive Powertrains,” 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, (CDC), Maui, HI, Dec. 9–12, pp. 4521–4526.
Lagerberg, A. , and Egardt, B. , 2007, “ Backlash Estimation With Application to Automotive Powertrains,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 15(3), pp. 483–493. [CrossRef]
Bakker, E. , Nyborg, L. , and Pacejka, H. B. , 1987, “ Tyre Modelling for Use in Vehicle Dynamics Studies,” SAE Paper No. 870421.
Singh, K. B. , Arat, M. A. , and Taheri, S. , 2013, “ An Intelligent Tire Based Tire-Road Friction Estimation Technique and Adaptive Wheel Slip Controller for Antilock Brake System,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 135(3), p. 031002. [CrossRef]
Canova, M. , D'Avico, L. , Rostiti, C. , Stockar, S. , Chen, G. , Prucka, M. , and Hussein, D. , 2017, “ Model-Based Wheel Torque and Backlash Estimation for Drivability Control,” SAE Paper No. 2017-01-111.
Mattingley, J. , and Boyd, S. , 2012, “ CVXGEN: A Code Generator for Embedded Convex Optimization,” Optim. Eng., 13(1), pp. 1–27. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the vehicle driveline model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simplified model of backlash (Adapted from Ref. [9])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Model input data for validation in second gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Model validation in second gear: comparison with experimental data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Model validation in second gear: details of a single tip-in (left) and tip-out (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Simulation setup for compensator validation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Simulation results of the backlash compensator for second gear tip-in test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Scheme of the switching wheel torque and backlash estimator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Integrated compensator system in intecrio environment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Overview of the setup for experimental verification of the compensator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Typical speed profile of the verification test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Results for a compensated tip-in maneuver

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Performance verification in second gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Performance verification in third gear

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In