0
Research Papers

Self-Exciting Wire Transducer for Time-Varying Strain Measurements

[+] Author and Article Information
Grzegorz Cieplok

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics,
AGH University of Science and Technology,
al. Mickiewicza 30,
Krakow 30-059, Poland
e-mail: cieplok@agh.edu.pl

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received July 16, 2017; final manuscript received June 22, 2018; published online August 1, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Soo Jeon.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 140(11), 111016 (Aug 01, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: DS-17-1363; doi: 10.1115/1.4040668 History: Received July 16, 2017; Revised June 22, 2018

The solution of a system exciting wire vibrations of a wire sensor allowing one to perform time-varying measurements, including rapid changes and of a chaotic nature, are presented in this paper. The system is based on the typical two-coil solution, in which one of the coils is responsible for exciting the wire vibrations while the other coil is used for recording those vibrations. The task of maintaining and not fading away the natural vibrations of the wire was solved by the excitation of self-exciting vibrations by the impulse system synchronized using the wire motion velocity. The mathematical analysis of the wire motion in the system with the impulse generator, in which the existence of the limiting cycle of the wire natural frequency was proved, is shown in this paper. The computer simulation results, illustrating the metrological possibilities of the solution as well as an example of a physical implementation, are also presented.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Wire , Vibration
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Mei, B. , Lucas, J. , Holé, S. , Lamarque, I. , and Cheron, N. , 2016, “ Origin of frequency difference between damped and sustained modes in vibrating wire sensors,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 241, pp. 66–73.
Bailey, W. , 1975, “ Vibrating Wire Meter,” US Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, U.S. Patent No. 3,889,525A. https://patents.google.com/patent/US3889525
Ştefănescu, D. M. , 2011, Vibrating-Wire Force Transducers, Springer, Berlin, pp. 203–226. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [PubMed]
Simonetti, A. , 2012, “ A Measurement Technique the Vibrating Wire Sensors,” NORCHIP, Copenhagen, Denmark, Nov. 12–13, pp. 1–6.
Di Biagio, E. , 2003, “ A Case Study of Vibrating-Wire Sensors That Have Vibrated Continuously for 27 Years,” Sixth International Symposium on Field Measurements in Geomechanics, Oslo, Norway, Sept. 15–18, pp. 445–458.
Simon, A. , Courtois, A. , Clauzon, T. , Coustabeau, E. , and Vinit, S. , 2015, “ Long-Term Measurement of Strain in Concrete: Durability and Accuracy of Embedded Vibrating Wire Strain Gauges,” Third Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures (SMAR), Antalya, Turkey, Sept. 7–9. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315112429_Long-term_measurement_of_strain_in_concrete_durability_and_accuracy_of_embedded_vibrating_wire_strain_gauges
Park, H. S. , Lee, H. Y. , Choi, S. W. , and Kim, Y. , 2013, “ A Practical Monitoring System for the Structural Safety of Mega-Trusses Using Wireless Vibrating Wire Strain Gauges,” Sensors, 13(12), pp. 17346–17361. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bednarski, L. , Sieńko, R. , and Howiacki, T. , 2015, “ Analysis of Rheological Phenomena in Reinforced Concrete Cross-Section of Rȩdziński Bridge Pylon Based on In Situ Measurements,” Seventh Scientific-Technical Conference on Material Problems in Civil Engineering (MATBUD'2015), pp. 536–543.
Bakkehøi, S. , and Øien, K. , 1985, “ An Automatic Precipitation Gauge Based on Vibrating-Wire Strain Gauges,” Nord. Hydrol., 16(4), pp. 193–202. http://hr.iwaponline.com/content/16/4/193
Kanciruk, A. , 2004, “ The Use of Vibrating Wire Gage for Dynamic Strain Measurements (Wykorzystanie strunowych przetworników deformacji do pomiarów dynamicznych),” XXVII Winter School of Rock Mechanics and Geoengineering, pp. 81–92.
Istvan, K. , Maria, M. , Bela-Zoltan, G. , and Szabolcs, B. , 2012, “ Vibrating Wire Sensor Measurement Method by Stimulation With Steps of Variable Frequency Sinusoidal Pulse Trains,” IEEE International Conference on Automation, Quality and Testing, Robotics, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, May 24–27, pp. 587–590.
Hamel, M. , 2009, “ Wireless Vibrating Strain Gauge for Smart Civil Structures,” Microstrain Inc., Williston, VT, U.S. Patent No. 7,591,187B2.
Jacobsen, L. E. , Israelsen, D. L. , and Swenson, J. A. , 2010, “ Vibrating Wire Sensor Using Spectral Analysis,” U.S. Patent No. 7,779,690B2. https://patents.google.com/patent/US20080184800A1/en
Jacobsen, L. , and Cornelsen, S. , 2014, “ System and Method for Measuring the Frequency of a Vibrating Object,” Campbell Scientific Inc, Logan, UT, U.S. Patent No. 8,671,758.
Cieplok, G. , and Kopij, L. , 2017, “ The Application of Self-Oscillation in Wire Gauges,” J. Theor. Appl. Mech., 55(1), pp. 29–39. [CrossRef]
Cieplok, G. , 2017, “ A Wire Transducer in a System With a Van Der Pol Oscillator and Velocity Feedback,” Nonlinear Anal.: Modell. Control, 22(4), pp. 459–472. [CrossRef]
Begamudre, R. , 1998, Electro-Mechanical Energy Conversion With Dynamics of Machine, 2nd ed., New Age International, New Delhi, India.
Bogoliubov, N. , and Mitropolsky, Y. , 1961, Asymptotic Methods in the Theory of Non-Linear Oscillations, Gordon & Breach, New York.
Fidlin, A. , 2006, Nonlinear Oscillations in Mechanical Engineering, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Scheme of the system supplying the wire

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Model of the electromagnet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Shape function com(x) used in simulation investigations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Lateral vibrations course of the middle point of the wire during the exciter start-up: (a) course of the velocity of the wiremiddle point yC and (b) course of the coordinate yC of the wire middle point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of the influence value of the electromagnet inductance on the wire movement. L2(1)—real inductance, L2(2)—inductance 2.2 times smaller. (a) Course of the velocity of the wire middle point, (b) course of the coordinate of the wire middle point, and (c) current course in electromagnet coils.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The motion coordinate pathway of the wire middle point yC resulting from the step changes of the wire tension force. Moments of tension force changes: t1 = 0.128 s (from 13.89 N to 6.95 N), t2 = 0.144 s (from 6.95 N to 27.79 N). (a) Course of the velocity of the wire middle point yC and (b) course of the coordinate yC of the wire middle point.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Magnifications of courses presented in Fig. 7 within the time interval from 0.125 s to 0.150 s: (a) magnification of Fig.7(a) and (b) magnification of Fig. 7(b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Schematic presentation of the impulse exciter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Photographs from the realization of the experimental investigations. (a) The universal plate with the exciter and the vibrating wire sensor. (b) Sensor mounting in the reinforcement of the concrete beam.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Voltage course at the selected points of the exciter—compare with Fig. 9. (a) Voltage on the pickup coil clamps after amplification (out 5 U3, CH 1) and filtration (out 5 U2, CH 2). (b) Voltage on the limiting resistor Rd (CH 1) and on the electromagnet drive coil L1 (CH 2).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Voltage courses on the pickup coil during loading tests: (a) Stroking load (CH 2—signal after filtering, CH 1—before filtering). Recording time: 24 s. (b) Step load (CH 2—signal after filtering, CH 1—before filtering). Recording time: 24 s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Magnification of Fig. 12—the signal fragment indicated by the arrow marker on the oscilloscope screen photo: (a) Magnification of Fig. 12(a), Uf—signal after filtering, Uin—before filtering. (b) Magnification of Fig. 12(b), Uf—signal after filtering.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In