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Research Papers

Four-Quadrant Analysis and System Design for Single-Rod Hydrostatic Actuators

[+] Author and Article Information
Gustavo Koury Costa

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Federal Institute of Pernambuco,
Av. Prof. Luís Freire,
500 - Cidade Universitaria,
Recife – PE 50740-540, Brazil
e-mail: gustavokoury@recife.ifpe.edu.br

Nariman Sepehri

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Manitoba,
75A Chancellors Circle,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada
e-mail: Nariman.Sepehri@umanitoba.ca

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received February 21, 2018; final manuscript received August 29, 2018; published online October 16, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Dumitru I. Caruntu.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 141(2), 021011 (Oct 16, 2018) (15 pages) Paper No: DS-18-1087; doi: 10.1115/1.4041382 History: Received February 21, 2018; Revised August 29, 2018

In this paper, we present a novel design for single-rod hydrostatic actuators that produces a stable response in all operation quadrants. The new design, which can have different embodiments, is built upon compensating for the differential flows coming in and out of single-rod actuators, by alternately connecting cap and rod sides of the cylinder to a flow source in accordance with the energy flow direction between the circuit and the load. We show that previous quadrant division definitions result in either geometric quadrants that do not coincide with motoring and pumping operation, or misrepresentations of the actual energy exchange between the load and the cylinder. The proposed quadrant representation gives the exact information about the right operation of compensating flow valves. The efficacy of the new design has been tested on an instrumented John Deere JD-48 backhoe. Precise redirection of the compensation flow allowed for nonoscillatory motions in all quadrants of operation and various loading conditions.

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References

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Costa, G. K. , and Sepehri, N. , 2015, Hydrostatic Transmissions and Actuators—Operation, Modelling and Applications, Wiley, Chichester, UK.
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Costa, G. , K. , and Sepehri, N. , 2017, “ Logic-Controlled Flow Compensation Circuit for Operating Single-Rod Hydrostatic Actuators,” U.S. Provisional Patent No. 62/574,326.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Demonstration of the problem of unmatched flows in single-rod hydrostatic actuators

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Fig. 2

Four-quadrant representation

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Fig. 3

Energy balance for a clockwise flow: (a) resistive load and (b) assistive load

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Fig. 4

Energy balance for a counter-clockwise flow: (a) assistive load and (b) resistive load

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Fig. 5

(a) Quadrant representation for the single-rod actuator and (b) low-pressure supply connection diagram

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Fig. 6

Clockwise quadrant operation

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Fig. 7

Hydraulic implementation of the logic conditions presented by Eq. (10)

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Fig. 8

Logic circuit solution for single-rod actuators

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Fig. 9

Hydraulic implementation of the logic solution shown in Fig. 8

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Fig. 10

Energy balance in quadrant IV

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Fig. 11

Cylinder velocity in quadrant IV

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Fig. 12

Ways to increase the rod-side pressure during the fourth quadrant: (a) constant pressure supply, (b) continuous throttling, (c) accumulation, and (d) localized throttling

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Fig. 13

Energy balance in quadrant II

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Fig. 14

Cylinder velocity in quadrant II

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Fig. 15

High performance electrohydrostatic actuator: (a) compensation flow at atmospheric pressure, (b) higher compensation pressure, and (c) additional one directional throttling

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Fig. 16

Four-quadrant operation (Circuit B)

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Fig. 17

Experimental setup for the John Deere JD-48 backhoe

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Fig. 18

Experimental results for a load weight of 367.41 kg attached to the backhoe arm; x — control signal; d — cylinder displacement; v — cylinder velocity; pp and pa — cap and rod-side pressures; FR — cylinder force; y and z — solenoid signals for the compensation valve

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Fig. 19

Experimental results with no load attached to the backhoe arm; x — control signal; d — cylinder displacement; v — cylinder velocity; pp and pa — cap and rod-side pressures; FR — cylinder force; y and z — solenoid signals for the compensation valve

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Fig. 20

Experimental results for a load weight of 367.41 kg attached to the backhoe arm; x — control signal; d — cylinderdisplacement; v — cylinder velocity; pp and pa — cap and rod-side pressures; FR — cylinder force; y and z— solenoid signals for the compensation valve

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Fig. 21

Experimental results with no load attached to the backhoe arm; x — control signal; d — cylinder displacement; v — cylinder velocity; pp and pa — cap and rod-side pressures; FR — cylinder force; y and z —solenoid signals for the compensation valve

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Fig. 22

Experimental results for a load weight of 367.41 kg attached to the backhoe arm; x — control signal; d — cylinder displacement; v - cylinder velocity; pp and pa –— cap and rod-side pressures; FR — cylinder force; y and z — solenoid signals for the compensation valve

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Fig. 23

Experimental results for a load weight of 367.41 kg attached to the backhoe arm (random input signal); x — control signal; d — cylinder displacement; v — cylinder velocity; pp and pa — cap and rod-side pressures; FR — cylinder force; y and z — solenoid signals for the compensation valve

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Fig. 24

Experimental results with no load attached to the backhoe arm; x — control signal; d — cylinder displacement; v — cylinder velocity; pp and pa — cap and rod-side pressures; FR — cylinder force; y and z — solenoid signals for the compensation valve

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Fig. 25

Experimental results for a load weight of 367.41 kg attached to the backhoe arm (random input signal); x — control signal; d — cylinder displacement; v — cylinder velocity; pp and pa – cap and rod-side pressures; FR — cylinder force; y and z— solenoid signals for the compensation valve

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Fig. 26

Efficiency at pumping quadrants (circuit B)

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