0
Research Papers

Experimental Study and Model Predictive Control of a Lean-Burn Gasoline Engine Coupled With a Passive Selective Catalytic Reduction System

[+] Author and Article Information
Qinghua Lin

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tennessee Technological University,
Cookeville, TN 38505

Pingen Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tennessee Technological University,
Cookeville, TN 38505
e-mail: pchen@tntech.edu

Vitaly Y. Prikhodko

Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Knoxville, TN 37932

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received February 18, 2018; final manuscript received March 18, 2019; published online May 2, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Huiping Li.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 141(9), 091008 (May 02, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: DS-18-1081; doi: 10.1115/1.4043269 History: Received February 18, 2018; Revised March 18, 2019

Lean-burn gasoline engines have demonstrated 10–20% engine efficiency gain over stoichiometric engines and are widely considered as a promising technology for meeting the 54.5 miles-per-gallon (mpg) corporate average fuel economy standard by 2025. Nevertheless, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions control for lean-burn gasoline for meeting the stringent Environmental Protection Agency tier 3 emission standards has been one of the main challenges toward the commercialization of highly efficient lean-burn gasoline engines in the United States. Passive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems, which consist of a three-way catalyst (TWC) and SCR, have demonstrated great potentials of effectively reducing NOx emissions for lean gasoline engines at low cost. However, passive SCR operation may cause significant fuel penalty since rich engine combustion is required for ammonia generation. The purpose of this study is to develop a model-predictive control (MPC) scheme for a lean-burn gasoline engine coupled with a passive SCR system to minimize the total equivalent fuel penalty associated with passive SCR operation while satisfying stringent NOx and ammonia (NH3) emissions requirements. Simulation results demonstrate that the MPC approach can reduce the fuel penalty by 43.9% in a simulated US06 cycle and 28.0% in a simulated urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) cycle, respectively, compared to the baseline control, while achieving over 97% DeNOx efficiency and less than 15 ppm tailpipe ammonia slip. The proposed MPC controller can potentially enable highly efficient lean-burn gasoline engines while meeting the stringent Environmental Protection Agency tier 3 emission standards.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Johnson, T. , 2016, “ Vehicular Emissions in Review,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 9(2), pp. 1258–1275. [CrossRef]
Johnson, T. V. , 2015, “ Review of Vehicular Emissions Trends,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 8(3), pp. 1152–1167. [CrossRef]
DiGiulio, C. D. , Pihl, J. A. , II, J. E. P. , Amiridis, M. D. , and Toops, T. J. , 2014, “ Passive-Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): Understanding NH3 Formation Over Close-Coupled Three Way Catalysts (TWC),” Catal. Today, 231, pp. 33–45. [CrossRef]
Li, W. , Perry, K. L. , Narayanaswamy, K. , Kim, C. H. , and Najt, P. , 2010, “ Passive Ammonia SCR System for Lean-Burn SIDI Engines,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 3(1), pp. 99–106. [CrossRef]
Theis, J. R. , Kim, J. , and Cavataio, G. , 2015, “ Passive TWC+SCR Systems for Satisfying Tier 2, Bin 2 Emission Standards on Lean-Burn Gasoline Engines,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 8(2), pp. 460–473. [CrossRef]
Prikhodko, V. Y. , Parks, J. E. , Pihl, J. A. , and Toops, T. J. , 2016, “ Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 9(2), pp. 1289–1295. [CrossRef]
Kim, C. H. , Perry, K. , Viola, M. , Li, W. , and Narayanaswamy, K. , 2011, “ Three-Way Catalyst Design for Urealess Passive Ammonia SCR: Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-0306.
Adams, E. C. , Skoglundh, M. , Elmøe, T. , and Carlsson, P. , “ Water–Gas-Shift Assisted Ammonia Formation Over Pd/Ce/Alumina,” Catal. Today, 307(1), pp. 169–174.
Adams, E. C. , Skoglundh, M. , Folic, M. , Bendixen, E. C. , Gabrielsson, P. , and Carlsson, P. , 2015, “ Ammonia Formation Over Supported Platinum and Palladium Catalysts,” Appl. Catal. B, 165, pp. 10–19. [CrossRef]
Adams, E. C. , Skoglundh, M. , and Carlsson, P. , 2017, “ Ammonia Formation From Nitric Oxide Over Pd-Based Catalysts in Multicomponent Feed Gas Compositions,” Catal. Commun., 95, pp. 26–30. [CrossRef]
Adams, E. C. , Skoglundh, M. , Gabrielsson, P. , and Carlsson, P. , 2016, “ Passive SCR: The Effect of H2 to NO Ratio on the Formation of NH3 Over Alumina Supported Platinum and Palladium Catalysts,” Top. Catal., 59(10–12), pp. 970–975. [CrossRef]
Prikhodko, V. Y. , Parks, J. E. , Pihl, J. A. , and Toops, T. J. , 2016, “ Passive SCR for Lean Gasoline NOx Control: Engine-Based Strategies to Minimize Fuel Penalty Associated With Catalytic NH3 Generation,” Catal. Today, 267, pp. 202–209. [CrossRef]
Lin, Q. , Chen, P. , and Prikhodko, V. Y. , 2017, “ Model Predictive Control of a Lean-Burn Gasoline Engine Coupled With a Passive Selective Catalytic Reduction System,” ASME Paper No. DSCC2017-5348.
Zhao, F. , Lai, M. , and Harrington, D. L. , 1999, “ Automotive Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 25(5), pp. 437–562. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, M. , and Wang, J. , 2011, “ Development and Experimental Studies of a Control-Oriented SCR Model for a Two-Catalyst Urea-SCR System,” Control Eng. Pract., 19(4), pp. 409–422. [CrossRef]
Chambon, P. , Huff, S. , Norman, K. , Edwards, K. D. , Thomas, J. , and Prikhodko, V. , 2011, “ European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1218.
Zhao, J. , Chen, P. , Ibrahim, U. , and Wang, J. , 2016, “ Comparative Study and Accommodation of Biodiesel in Diesel—Electric Hybrid Vehicles Coupled With Aftertreatment Systems,” Asian J. Control, 18(1), pp. 3–15. [CrossRef]
Yan, F. , Wang, J. , and Huang, K. , 2012, “ Hybrid Electric Vehicle Model Predictive Control Torque-Split Strategy Incorporating Engine Transient Characteristics,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 61(6), pp. 2458–2467. [CrossRef]
Chen, P. , and Wang, J. , 2016, “ Estimation and Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems in Automotive Applications,” J. Process Control, 40, pp. 78–92. [CrossRef]
Sciarretta, A. , Back, M. , and Guzzella, L. , 2004, “ Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 12(3), pp. 352–363. [CrossRef]
Qin, S. J. , and Badgwell, T. A. , 2003, “ A Survey of Industrial Model Predictive Control Technology,” Control Eng. Pract., 11(7), pp. 733–764. [CrossRef]
Qin, S. J. , and Badgwell, T. A. , 1997, “ An Overview of Industrial Model Predictive Control Technology,” AIche Symposium Series, New York, pp. 232–256.
Henson, M. A. , 1998, “ Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Current Status and Future Directions,” Comput. Chem. Eng., 23(2), pp. 187–202.
Morari, M. , and Lee, J. H. , 1999, “ Model Predictive Control: Past, Present and Future,” Comput. Chem. Eng., 23(4–5), pp. 667–682. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of engine-passive SCR platform

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Fuel penalty versus λ at 2000 rpm (3 bar, 5 bar, and 8 bar)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Impact of λ on NOx-to-NH3 conversion on TWC at 2000 rpm/3 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Impact of λ on NOx-to-NH3 conversion on TWC at 2000 rpm/5 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Impact of λ on NOx-to-NH3 conversion on TWC at 2000 rpm/8 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Engine torque versus time during the test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

NH3 and NOx concentration measurements at SCR inlet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of tailpipe NOx concentrations from model predictions and measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of NH3 slips from model predictions and measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

MPC scheme for λ control

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of k1 on cost function at 2000 rpm/3 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effect of k1 on cost function at 2000 rpm/8 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Simulated US06 cycle (top) and simulated UDDS cycle (bottom)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of θ over simulated US06 cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of λ over simulated US06 cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison of θ over simulated UDDS cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison of λ over simulated UDDS cycle

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In