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Technical Brief

Wind Turbine Participation in Primary Frequency Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Matthew Chu Cheong

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712
e-mail: mkchucheong@utexas.edu

Zheren Ma, Julia Conger, Pengwei Du, Dongmei Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712

Haiya Qian

Department of Electrical Engineering,
Southeast University,
Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received May 26, 2018; final manuscript received March 29, 2019; published online May 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ryozo Nagamune.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 141(10), 104501 (May 08, 2019) (6 pages) Paper No: DS-18-1253; doi: 10.1115/1.4043426 History: Received May 26, 2018; Revised March 29, 2019

Wind energy is a clean and desirable power source, but wind turbines can potentially operate to the detriment of grid stability. As wind turbine penetration increases, concerns grow regarding power intermittency and frequency regulation. These factors motivate a need for control methodologies that enable a wind turbine to support grid frequency regulation. In this paper, a control design is proposed for a wind turbine to operate in conjunction with a backup synchronous generator for primary frequency control in a microgrid. The proposed design capitalizes on the idea that the wind turbine has a significant amount of rotational inertia in its rotor, and so the power output of the wind turbine can be rapidly adjusted for frequency support via power electronic commands. A novel torque controller is proposed to quickly track the commanded power output without causing wind turbine instability, and an H2 gain-scheduled pitch controller has been developed to optimally track the commanded power output while avoiding turbine overspeeding. The proposed design may be used for either un-deloaded or deloaded wind turbine operation, depending on the available wind power. Simulation results show that the proposed wind turbine frequency control effectively enhances the grid frequency response by reducing the frequency deviation from its nominal value following a power imbalance event.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Detailed structure of the second subsystem with a wind turbine, diesel generator, static and dynamic loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Power coefficient as a function of tip-speed-ratio and blade pitch angle for an NREL 1.5 MW WindPact turbine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Performance comparison of deloaded and undeloaded scenarios with/without wind turbine support following an under-frequency event. Showing (a) wind speed, (b) network frequency, (c) power injection from diesel generator, (d) power injection from wind turbine, (e) wind turbine rotor frequency, and (f) wind turbine blade pitch angle.

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