Research Papers

Detection of Faults and Drifts in the Energy Performance of a Building Using Bayesian Networks

[+] Author and Article Information
David Bigaud

Laboratoire Angevin de Recherche en
Ingénierie des Systèmes (LARIS),
University of Angers,
62 Avenue Notre Dame du Lac,
Angers 49000, France
e-mail: david.bigaud@univ-angers.fr

Abderafi Charki

Laboratoire Angevin de Recherche en
Ingénierie des Systèmes (LARIS),
University of Angers,
62 Avenue Notre Dame du Lac,
Angers 49000, France
e-mail: abderafi.charki@univ-angers.fr

Antoine Caucheteux

Centre d'Etudes et d'expertise sur les Risques,
l'Environnement, la Mobilité et
l'Aménagement (CEREMA),
23 Avenue de l'Amiral Chauvin BP 20069,
Les Ponts-de-Cé 49136, France
e-mail: antoine.Caucheteux@cerema.fr

Fally Titikpina

Laboratoire Angevin de Recherche en
Ingénierie des Systèmes (LARIS),
University of Angers,
62 Avenue Notre Dame du Lac,
Angers 49000, France
e-mail: fally.titikpina@univ-angers.fr

Teodor Tiplica

Laboratoire Angevin de Recherche en
Ingénierie des Systèmes (LARIS),
University of Angers,
62 avenue Notre Dame du Lac,
Angers 49000, France
e-mail: teodor.tiplica@univ-angers.fr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT,AND CONTROL. Manuscript received February 3, 2018; final manuscript received May 27, 2019; published online June 20, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Umesh Vaidya.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 141(10), 101011 (Jun 20, 2019) (22 pages) Paper No: DS-18-1056; doi: 10.1115/1.4043922 History: Received February 03, 2018; Revised May 27, 2019

Despite improved commissioning practices, malfunctions or degradation of building systems still contribute to increase up to 20% the energy consumption. During operation and maintenance stage, project and building technical managers need appropriate methods for the detection and diagnosis of faults and drifts of energy performances in order to establish effective preventive maintenance strategies. This paper proposes a hybrid and multilevel fault detections and diagnosis (FDD) tool dedicated to the identification and prioritization of corrective maintenance actions helping to ensure the energy performance of buildings. For this purpose, we use dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) to monitor the energy consumption and detect malfunctions of building equipment and systems by considering both measured occupancy and the weather conditions (number of persons on site, temperature, relative humidity (RH), etc.). The hybrid FDD approach developed makes possible the use of both measured and simulated data. The training of the Bayesian network for functional operating mode relies on on-site measurements. As far as dysfunctional operating modes are concerned, they rely mainly on knowledge extracted from dynamic thermal analysis simulating various operational faults and drifts. The methodology is applied to a real building and demonstrates the way in which the prioritization of most probable causes can be set for a fault affecting energy performance. The results have been obtained for a variety of simulated situations with faults deliberately injected, such as increase in heating preset temperature and deterioration of the transmission coefficient of the building's glazing. The limitations of the methodology are discussed and are translated in terms of the ability to optimize the experiment design, control period, or threshold adjustment on the control charts used.

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Fig. 1

The Markov Blanket. The shaded nodes (parents, co-parents, children nodes) are inside the Markov Blanket of node “A.” The white ones are outside the blanket.

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Fig. 2

Three stages of the proposed approach: (a) modeling principle for functional mode—inductive stage to establish “baseline” of behavior in functional (nonfaulty) mode, (b) modeling principle for dysfunctional mode—inductive stage to characterize effects of faults, and (c) modeling principle for dysfunctional mode—deductive stage to identify and hierarchize causes of performance drift

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Fig. 3

Modeling using Sketchup 3D® of CEREMA building

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Fig. 4

Positioning of different sensors installed by CEREMA

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Fig. 5

Comparisons between the results obtained from DES model and actual data: (a) Variation of the required HQ (for the whole surface area of 105 m²) as a function of the difference between indoor and OTs for both simulated and actual data, (b) variation of the difference between indoor and OTs as a function of time, and (c) variation of the required daily HQ (for the whole surface area of 105 m²) as a function of time

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Fig. 6

Bayesian network for operational mode solely for Office #5 (with hourly measurements over a period of a year)

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Fig. 7

Bayesian network for operational mode for whole floor (with hourly measurements over a period of a year)

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Fig. 8

Bayesian network for operational mode for whole floor (using hourly measurements during period of heating only)

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Fig. 9

Bayesian network for whole floor (using daily measurements over a period of a year). Implementation of a T² Hotelling multivariate control chart to detect drifts of the energy needs is also illustrated.

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Fig. 10

The Bayesian network for whole floor (using daily measurements over a period of a year) with continuous nodes

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Fig. 11

Illustrations of a dynamic Bayesian network with two different levels of significance: (a) Relationships between variables at (t − 1) and (t) for a level of significance p-value < 0.01 and (b) relationships between variables at (t − 1) and (t) for a level of significance p-value < 0.001

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Fig. 12

Energy needs (or HQ) of office #6 (HQ_office#6)

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Fig. 13

Simulation of consumption deviations for an increase in preset temperature (case_1)

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Fig. 14

Simulation of consumption deviations for a deterioration in glazing transmission coefficient (case_2)

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Fig. 15

Probability of being under SC after an increase in the preset temperature (case_1) or a decrease in the glazing transmission coefficient (case_2)

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Fig. 16

Statistical distributions of detection times after an increase in the preset temperature (case_1) or a decrease in the glazing transmission coefficient (case_2)

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Fig. 17

Influence of the preset temperature drift amplitude on the probability of process being under SC

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Fig. 18

Principle of the fault characterization moving time-window

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Fig. 19

Simulations of consumption deviations for the case with two simultaneous faults (IT and Uwi)

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Fig. 20

Simulations of consumption deviations for the case with two simultaneous faults (IT and Uwi)

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Fig. 21

Probability of process being under SC for a case with two faults appearing simultaneously (IT and Uwi)



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