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J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091001-091001-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039485.

A high-performance controller and strategy can significantly ameliorate the dynamic and transient capability of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine. As regards, the wind speed has essentially defined the generated power by DFIG, thus, both the active and the reactive power must be followed out according to the entrance wind in the nominal and disturbance conditions. Toward this objective, noninteger order fuzzy proportional integral derivative (NIOFPID) controller based direct power control (DPC) strategy is proposed in this paper to minimize the deviation of both active and reactive power with the aim of accurate and speedy tracking of these powers. In the same vein, the aforementioned problem must be formulized in the form of the multi-objective optimization problem. Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) is here taken into account to intermingle with the simultaneous coordination of NIOFPIDs. The performance of held forth controller has been further evaluated under the affected power system caused by short circuit and flicker events. Eventually, the simulation results under transient and steady-state conditions demonstrate the dynamic and transient performance of NIOFPID-based DPC.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091002-091002-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039414.

Magnetorheological (MR) fluids, well established as components of a variety of suspension systems, may offer opportunities to improve the performance of fabric ballistic protection systems, which typically do not incorporate significant energy dissipation mechanisms. A series of ballistic impact experiments has been conducted to investigate the potential of MR fluid damped fabric suspension systems to improve upon current fabric barrier designs. The results indicate that for the simple fabric suspension systems tested, MR fluid damping does not improve upon the very high weight specific ballistic performance of state of the art aramid fibers.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091003-091003-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039365.

This paper investigates a nonlinear control design for trajectory tracking and rate of penetration (ROP) control of the vertical downhole drilling process. The drilling system dynamics are first built incorporating the coupled axial and torsional dynamics together with a velocity-independent drill bit–rock interaction model. Given the underactuated, nonlinear, and nonsmooth feature of the drilling dynamics, we propose a control design that can prevent significant downhole vibrations, enable accurate tracking, and achieve desired rate of penetration. It can also ensure robustness against modeling uncertainties and external disturbances. The controller is designed using a sequence of hyperplanes given in a cascade structure. The tracking control is achieved in two phases, where in the first phase the drilling system states converge to a high-speed drilling regime free of stick–slip behavior, and in the second phase, the error dynamics can asymptotically converge. Finally, we provide simulation results considering different case studies to evaluate the efficacy and the robustness of the proposed control approach.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091004-091004-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039468.

This paper deals with the design of sliding mode controller (SMC) with proportional plus integral sliding surface for regulation and tracking of uncertain process control systems. However, design method requires linear state model of the system. Tuning parameter of SMC has been determined using linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach. This results in optimum sliding surface for selected performance index. Matched uncertainty is considered to obtain the stability condition in terms of its upper bound. A conventional state observer has been used to estimate the states. The estimated states are then fed to controller for determining control signal. The simulation study and experimentation on real-life level system have been carried out to validate performance and applicability of the proposed controller.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091005-091005-11. doi:10.1115/1.4039277.

Owing to the hierarchical architecture of the derived model of the omni-direction autonomous ground vehicle (OD-AGV), the virtual desired trajectory (VDT) is first designed by the first switching surface, which is set as the linear dynamic pose error of the OD-AGV. In sequence, the trajectory tracking control (TTC) is designed by the second switching surface, which is the linear dynamic tracking error of the VDT. To deal with nonlinear time-varying uncertainties including system disturbance and different ground conditions, enhanced fuzzy second-order variable structure control (EF2VSC) is designed into both VDT and TTC. Finally, the experiments for tracking the circular trajectories with different curvatures, traveling velocities, and poses of the OD-AGV are presented to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed hierarchical enhancement using fuzzy second-order variable structure control (HEF2VSC).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091006-091006-15. doi:10.1115/1.4039483.

New efforts have been made to build up prototypes of subcutaneous closed-loop systems for controlling blood glucose (BG) levels in type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) patients with the development of clinically accurate continuous glucose monitors, automated micro-insulin dispenser (MID), and control algorithms. There is an urgency to develop new control algorithm to determine the desired dose of insulin for maintaining normal BG levels. As a solution to the above issue, a novel backstepping sliding mode Gaussian controller (BSMGC) is proposed whose gains vary dynamically with respect to the error signal. A feedback control law is formulated by a hybrid approach based on BSMGC. A ninth-order linearized state-space model of a nonlinear TIDM patient with the MID is formulated for the design of the BSMGC. This controller is evaluated, and the results are compared with other recently published control techniques. The output responses clearly reveal the better performance of the proposed method to control the BG level within the range of normoglycaemia in terms of accuracy, robustness and handling uncertainties.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091007-091007-14. doi:10.1115/1.4039488.

In this paper, we present a discontinuous cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) response for HTLV-1. Moreover, a delay parameter for the activation of CTLs is considered. In fact, a system of differential equation with discontinuous right-hand side with delay is defined for HTLV-1. For analyzing the dynamical behavior of the system, graphical Hopf bifurcation is used. In general, Hopf bifurcation theory will help to obtain the periodic solutions of a system as parameter varies. Therefore, by applying the frequency domain approach and analyzing the associated characteristic equation, the existence of Hopf bifurcation by using delay immune response as a bifurcation parameter is determined. The stability of Hopf bifurcation periodic solutions is obtained by the Nyquist criterion and the graphical Hopf bifurcation theorem. At the end, numerical simulations demonstrated our results for the system of HTLV-1.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091008-091008-10. doi:10.1115/1.4039484.

In this work, we have discussed the fuzzy solutions for fuzzy controllable problem, fuzzy feedback problem, and fuzzy global controllable (GC) problems. We use the method of successive approximations under the generalized Lipschitz condition for the local existence and furthermore, we have described the contraction principle under suitable conditions for global existence and uniqueness of fuzzy solutions. We have too the GC results for fuzzy systems. Some examples and computer simulation illustrating our approach are also given for these controllable problems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091009-091009-15. doi:10.1115/1.4039482.

Gravity is usually neglected in the dynamic modeling and analysis of the transmission system, especially in some relatively lightweight equipment. The weight of wind turbine gearbox is up to tens of tons or even hundreds of tons, and the effects of gravity have not been explored and quantified. In order to obtain accurate vibration response predictions to understand the coupled dynamic characteristics of the wind turbine gear transmission system, a comprehensive, fully coupled, dynamic model is established by the node finite element method with gravity considered. Both time-domain and frequency-domain dynamic responses are calculated using the precise integration method with various excitations being taken into account. The results indicate that gravity has a significant impact on the vibration equilibrium position of central floating components, but the changing trends are different. Gravity does not change the composition of the excitation frequency, but will have a certain impact on the distribution ratio of the frequency components. And the high frequency vibrations are hardly affected by gravity. In addition, the load sharing coefficient is greater when gravity is taken into account, both of internal gearing and of external gearing system. When the planet gears have a certain position error in accordance with certain rules, the load sharing performance of the system will be better.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):091010-091010-12. doi:10.1115/1.4039486.

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) offer improved fuel efficiency compared to their conventional counterparts at the expense of adding complexity and at times, reduced total power. As a result, HEV generally lack the dynamic performance that customers enjoy. To address this issue, the paper presents a HEV with electric all-wheel drive (eAWD) capabilities via the use of a torque vectoring electric rear axle drive (TVeRAD) unit to power the rear axle. The addition of TVeRAD to a front wheel drive HEV improves the total power output. To further improve the handling characteristics of the vehicle, the TVeRAD unit allows for wheel torque vectoring (TV) at the rear axle. A bond graph model of the proposed drivetrain model is developed and used in cosimulation with carsim. The paper proposes a control system, which utilizes slip ratio optimization to allocate control to each tire. The optimization algorithm is used to obtain optimal slip ratio targets to at each tire such that the targets avoid tire saturation. The Youla parameterization technique is used to develop robust tracking controllers for each axle. The proposed control system is ultimately tested on the drivetrain model with a high fidelity carsim vehicle model for validation. Simulation results show that the control system is able to maximize vehicle longitudinal performance while avoiding tire saturation on a low μ surface. More importantly, the control system is able to track the desired yaw moment request on a high-speed double-lane change (DLC) maneuver through the use of the TVeRAD to improve the handling characteristic of the vehicle.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(9):094501-094501-6. doi:10.1115/1.4039367.

A negative input shaped command is presented for flexible systems to reduce the residual oscillation under unequal acceleration and braking delays of actuators that are common issues in industrial applications. Against this nonlinearity, a compensated unit magnitude zero vibration (UMZV) shaper is analytically developed with a phasor vector diagram and a ramp-step function to approximate the dynamic response of the unequal acceleration and braking delays of actuators. A closed-form solution is presented with a benchmark system without sacrificing the generality and simplicity for industrial applications. The robustness and control performance of the exact solution are numerically evaluated and compared with those of an existing negative input shaper in terms of the switch-on time, command interference, and effects of the shaper parameters. The proposed negative input shaped commands are experimentally validated with a mini-bridge crane.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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