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Research Papers

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(7):071001-071001-7. doi:10.1115/1.4038647.

We present two alternative methods for fault detection and isolation (FDI) with redundant Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) in inertial navigation systems (INS) based on nonlinear observers (NLOs). The first alternative is based on the parity space method, while the second is expanded with quaternion-based averaging and FDI. Both alternatives are implemented and validated using data gathered in a full-scale experiment on an offshore vessel. Data from three identical MEMS IMUs and the vessel's own industrial sensors are used to verify the methods' FDI capabilities. The results reveal that when it comes to FDI of the IMUs' angular rate sensors, there are differences between the two methods. The navigation algorithm based on quaternion weighting is essentially unaffected by the failure of an angular rate sensor, while the parity-space-method-based alternative experiences a perturbation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(7):071002-071002-9. doi:10.1115/1.4038658.

Energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) is an effective graphical modeling tool for multiphysical systems, and EMR model clearly illustrates the power flow and interaction between different subcomponents. This paper presents the modeling and control of a novel linear-driven electro-hydrostatic actuator (LEHA) with EMR method. The LEHA is a novel electro-hydrostatic actuation system, and the hydraulic cylinder in LEHA is driven by a novel collaborative rectification pump (CRP), which incorporates two miniature cylinders and two spool valves. EMR model clearly illustrated the powertrain in LEHA and interaction between each components. Based on EMR model, a maximum control structure (MCS) is easily deduced using the action and reaction principle, and then the practicable controller deduced from MCS shows satisfying performance in the simulation.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(7):071006-071006-10. doi:10.1115/1.4038656.

Temperature is one of the essential parameter in a fermentation process, which affects the thermal movement of cells. The temperature range for such processes is very tight and must be maintained precisely for efficient operation. Therefore, in this work combination of fractional calculus and two degrees-of-freedom proportional–integral–derivative (2DOF-PID) controller is proposed for desired temperature control of bioreactor. The 2DOF-PID controller incorporates an extra control loop, whereas fractional operator offers additional tractability for alteration in system dynamics. In order to achieve efficient execution of the control strategies, design parameters are optimized with the help of nondominated sorted genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and Cuckoo search algorithm (CSA). NSGA-II-tuned controllers perform better than the CSA-tuned controllers. Further, the results show that the proposed controller regulates the temperature of bioreactor in a more robust and efficient manner in comparison to other designed controllers.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(7):071007-071007-8. doi:10.1115/1.4038714.

In this paper, a new initial rotor angle position estimation method for the sensorless high-speed brushless direct current (DC) motor (HS-BLDCM) is proposed. Two groups of special three-phase conduction current pulse signals are injected into the three phases of the motor, and the mathematical formulation for the initial angle position estimation is illustrated. The initial rotor position is expressed as a function of the line voltage, the phase current derivative, and the average value of d–q frame stator inductance. Particularly, the independent parameters of the initial rotor angle position are eliminated in the mathematical model. The cooperative simulation results based on Maxwell and Simplorer and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective with the estimation error less than 0.2 deg electrical in simulation and 5 deg electrical in experiment.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(7):071008-071008-10. doi:10.1115/1.4038715.

Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) secretion clearance system is usually utilized to help patients to clear secretion. In this paper, to obtain the essential dynamic characteristics of volume-controlled (VC) MI-E secretion clearance system with double lungs, a dimensionless model of the MI-E secretion clearance system is derived. Furthermore, for the validation of the mathematical model, a prototype VC MI-E secretion clearance system is proposed. Finally, to reveal the impact of key parameters on VC MI-E secretion clearance system, a dimensionless orthogonal experiment with four factors and five levels was processed. And then, coupling effects of two lungs on VC MI-E secretion clearance system were illustrated. This paper can be referred to in treatment of secretion clearance with VC secretion clearance system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(7):071009-071009-12. doi:10.1115/1.4038800.

For linear dynamic systems with uncertain parameters, design of controllers which drive a system from an initial condition to a desired final state, limited by state constraints during the transition is a nontrivial problem. This paper presents a methodology to design a state constrained controller, which is robust to time invariant uncertain variables. Polynomial chaos (PC) expansion, a spectral expansion, is used to parameterize the uncertain variables permitting the evolution of the uncertain states to be written as a polynomial function of the uncertain variables. The coefficients of the truncated PC expansion are determined using the Galerkin projection resulting in a set of deterministic equations. A transformation of PC polynomial space to the Bernstein polynomial space permits determination of bounds on the evolving states of interest. Linear programming (LP) is then used on the deterministic set of equations with constraints on the bounds of the states to determine the controller. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the benefit of the proposed technique for the design of a rest-to-rest controller subject to deformation constraints and which are robust to uncertainties in the stiffness coefficient for the benchmark spring-mass-damper system.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(7):074501-074501-9. doi:10.1115/1.4038860.

This paper presents a solution to the optimal control problem of a three degrees-of-freedom (3DOF) wave energy converter (WEC). The three modes are the heave, pitch, and surge. The dynamic model is characterized by a coupling between the pitch and surge modes, while the heave is decoupled. The heave, however, excites the pitch motion through nonlinear parametric excitation in the pitch mode. This paper uses Fourier series (FS) as basis functions to approximate the states and the control. A simplified model is first used where the parametric excitation term is neglected and a closed-form solution for the optimal control is developed. For the parametrically excited case, a sequential quadratic programming approach is implemented to solve for the optimal control numerically. Numerical results show that the harvested energy from three modes is greater than three times the harvested energy from the heave mode alone. Moreover, the harvested energy using a control that accounts for the parametric excitation is significantly higher than the energy harvested when neglecting this nonlinear parametric excitation term.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Errata

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control. 2018;140(7):077001-077001-1. doi:10.1115/1.4039017.

The following correction (Ninevah University) is to be noted with the affiliation instead of (University of Mosul).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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