In gas well production, liquid is produced in two forms, droplets entrained in the gas core and liquid film flowing on the tubing wall. For most of the gas well life cycle, the predominant flow pattern is annular flow. As gas wells mature, the produced gas flow rate reduces decreasing the liquid carrying capability initiating the condition where the liquid film is unstable and flow pattern changes from fully co-current annular flow to partially co-current annular flow. The measurement and visualization of annular flow and liquid loading characteristics is of great importance from a technical point of view for process control or from a theoretical point of view for the improvement and validation of current modeling approaches. In this experimental investigation, a Wire-Mesh technique based on conductance measurements was applied to enhance the understanding of the air-water flow in vertical pipes. The flow test section consisting of a 76 mm ID pipe, 18 m long, was employed to generate annular flow and liquid loading at low pressure conditions. A 16×16 wire configuration sensor is used to determine the void fraction within the cross-section of the pipe. Data sets were collected with a sampling frequency of 10,000 Hz. Physical flow parameters were extracted based on processed raw measured data obtained by the sensors using signal processing. In this work, the principle of Wire-Mesh Sensors and the methodology of flow parameter extraction are described. From the obtained raw data, time series of void fraction, mean local void fraction distribution, characteristic frequencies and structure velocities are determined for different liquid and gas superficial velocities that ranged from 0.005 to 0.1 m/s and from 10 to 40 m/s, respectively. In order to investigate dependence of liquid loading phenomenon on viscosity, three different liquid viscosities were used. Results from the Wire-Mesh Sensors are compared with results obtained from previous experimental work using Quick Closing Valves and existing modeling approaches available in the literature.
- Fluids Engineering Division
Experimental Study of Vertical Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow for Annular and Liquid Loading Conditions Using Dual Wire-Mesh Sensors
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Vieira, RE, Parsi, M, Torres, CF, Shirazi, SA, McLaury, BS, Schleicher, E, & Hampel, U. "Experimental Study of Vertical Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow for Annular and Liquid Loading Conditions Using Dual Wire-Mesh Sensors." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 4th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting collocated with the ASME 2014 12th International Conference on Nanochannels, Microchannels, and Minichannels. Volume 2, Fora: Cavitation and Multiphase Flow; Fluid Measurements and Instrumentation; Microfluidics; Multiphase Flows: Work in Progress; Fluid-Particle Interactions in Turbulence. Chicago, Illinois, USA. August 3–7, 2014. V002T11A007. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/FEDSM2014-21849
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