A droplet entrainment model was applied to characterize the flow pattern transition in the countercurrent horizontal flow with liquid nitrogen (LN2) and vapor nitrogen (VN2). A two-fluid three-field model consisting of liquid film, gas, and droplet was implemented based on the Eulerian-Eulerian model in ANSYS Fluent®. In the droplet entrainment model, the condition and position of the droplet generation were realized by calculating the velocity gradient in the normal direction of the interface towards the gas core. The droplet entrainment and deposition rates were also included and validated according to the available data of water/air in the literature. Three flow patterns, including stratified-wavy flow, churn flow, and pseudo-slug flow, were identified in simulation results with LN2/VN2. Furthermore, ligament breakup was found to be the main droplet entrainment mechanism in the churn and pseudo-slug flow, and there can be a high probability of the occurrence of bubble burst as well. Compared with water/air, the droplets are more easily to be entrained in LN2/VN2 due to the smaller viscosity and surface tension according to the results of droplet mass flow rate. Pressure drop signals of the three flow patterns were also obtained and analyzed.

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