Flow patterns for water-butanol, water-toluene and water-hexane two-phase flows were visualized in the cross-shaped junctions of three square glass microchannels with hydraulic diameters of 200 μm, 400 μm and 600 μm. Typical flow pattern maps for water-butanol two-phase flow were developed based on Capillary number of the continuous phase and Weber number of the dispersed phase, and compared with a previous flow pattern map in the literature. Three main flow pattern groups were observed, including the tubing/threading regime group, the dripping regime and the jetting regime. The geometry confinement and fluid properties affected the viscous shear and interfacial tension forces and therefore their influence on flow pattern transitions was clarified. Besides, in the dripping regime, the dimensionless slug length can be scaled as a function of the flow rate ratio and the Capillary number of the continuous phase.

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