In this study, we introduce a novel approach to identify the structure of soot agglomerates in flames. The idea is based on the use of elliptically-polarized light scattering, which is quite sensitive to the morphology of the scattering particles. First, a numerical procedure is outlined to determine the scattering (Mueller) matrix elements of particles and agglomerates. Results for various fractal-like agglomerates are presented. Following this, an experimental procedure is described to measure the same elements. Then, normalized experimental and numerical results are compared to estimate the fractal morphology of soot agglomerates. The results show that this technique is quite versatile and can be employed effectively to identify the size and structure of soot agglomerates.