Accepted Manuscripts

Yan Li, Zengpeng Lu, Fan Zhou, Bo Dong, Keping Liu and Yuanchun Li
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042550
The main technical challenge in decentralized control of modular and reconfigurable robots (MRRs) with torque sensor is related to the treatment of interconnection term and friction terms. This paper proposed a modified adaptive sliding mode decentralized control strategy for trajectory tracking control of the MRRs. The radial basis function (RBF) neural network is used as an effective nonlinear function learning method to approximate the interconnect terms and friction terms, eliminating the effect of model uncertainty and reducing the controller gain. In addition, in order to ensure that the tracking errors of the MRRs system converges to zero within finite time, the terminal sliding mode (TSM) algorithm is introduced to the controller design. Based on Lyapunov method, the stability of MRRs closed-loop system is proved. Finally, experiments are performed to confirm the effectiveness of the method.
TOPICS: Robots, Trajectories (Physics), Torque, Sensors, Tracking control, Friction, Control equipment, Stability, Uncertainty, Algorithms, Design, Artificial neural networks, Closed loop systems, Errors, Lyapunov methods
zhihao Liu, Qinhe Gao and Hailong Niu
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042546
Combining the flexible carcass beam and the radial sidewall element, flexible beam on elastic foundation with combined sidewall stiffness tire model is proposed for heavy loaded off-road tire with a large section ratio. The circumferential vibration of flexible carcass is modeled as Euler beam and the influence of inflation pressure on the circumferential vibration of flexible carcass is investigated with the modal experiment and theoretical modeling. The structural stiffness caused by the sidewall curvature and pre-tension stiffness caused by the inflation pressure is combined for the radial sidewall element. The influence of the sidewall structural parameters on the combined stiffness of sidewall and modal resonant frequency is researched and discussed. The nonlinear combined stiffness of sidewall is investigated with respect to the radial sidewall deformation. Experimental and theoretical results show that: (1) The combined stiffness of sidewall can character the pre-tension stiffness caused by inflation pressure and the structural stiffness led by the sidewall curvature and material properties and (2) The combined stiffness of sidewall is nonlinear with respect to the radial sidewall deformation, which is prominent with high inflation pressure. Taking the flexibility characteristic of tire carcass and the nonlinear stiffness of sidewall into consideration, flexible beam on elastic foundation with combined sidewall stiffness tire model is suitable for the heavy loaded off-road tire with a large section ratio or tires under impulsive loading and large deformation.
TOPICS: Roads, Stiffness, Tires, Pressure, Deformation, Tension, Vibration, Resonance, Materials properties, Modeling
Ruiyun Qi, Weiwei Su and Yizhen Meng
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042548
For deep space probe subject to uncertain time-varying inertia matrix, unknown external disturbances, actuator faults and misalignment, a fault-tolerant attitude controller is designed in this paper, which is based on adaptive control law and fast terminal sliding mode control theory. A new method to handle actuator uncertainties is developed, which redefines the effectiveness matrix and the misalignment matrix. Moreover, an explicit sufficient condition is presented in order to construct the fault-tolerant attitude controller. The proposed controller can stabilize the attitude control system within finite time with a fast convergence rate and high precision. Numerical simulations are made to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed controller.
TOPICS: Control equipment, Sliding mode control, Design, Space probes, Actuators, Uncertainty, Computer simulation, Adaptive control, Inertia (Mechanics), Control systems
Design Innovation Paper  
S Mathavaraj and Radhakant Padhi
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042549
A new computationally efficient nonlinear optimal control synthesis technique, named as Unscented Model Predictive Static Programming (U-MPSP), is presented in this paper that is applicable to a class of problems with uncertainties in time-invariant system parameters and/or initial conditions. This new technique is a fusion of two recent ideas, namely Model Predictive Static Programming (MPSP) and Riemann--Stieltjes optimal control problems. First, unscented transform is utilized to construct a low-dimensional finite number of deterministic problems. The philosophy of MPSP is utilized next so that the solution can be obtained in a computational efficient manner. The control solution not only ensures that the terminal constraint is met accurately with respect to the mean value, but it also ensures that the associated covariance matrix (i.e. the error ball) is minimized. Significance of U-MPSP has been demonstrated by successfully solving two benchmark problems, namely the Zermelo problem and inverted pendulum problem, which contain parametric and initial condition uncertainties.
TOPICS: Optimal control, Nonlinear dynamical systems, Computer programming, Uncertainty, Time-invariant systems, Pendulums, Errors
Kevin Leyden, Mihir Sen and Bill Goodwine
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042466
This paper introduces mechanical networks as a tool for modeling complex unidirectional vibrations. Networks of this type have branches containing massless linear springs and dampers, with masses at the nodes. Tree and ladder configurations are examples demonstrating that the overall dynamics of infinite systems can be represented using implicitly defined integro-differential operators. Results from the proposed models compare well to numerical results from finite systems, so this approach may have advantages over high-order differential equations.
TOPICS: Dampers, Springs, Dynamics (Mechanics), Differential equations, Modeling, Vibration
Abdellah Benzaouia, Fouad Mesquine, Mohamed Benhayoun and Abdoulaziz Benbraim
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042467
Continuous-time fractional linear systems with delays, asymmetrical bounds on control and non negative states are considered. Hence, the stabilization problem is studied and solved. Direct Lyapunov-Krasovskii function is used leading to conditions in terms of a linear program. Simulation difficulties and numerical problems raised by the use of the Mittag$-$Leffler expression are overcome. In fact, the obtained solution uses the fractional integration of the system dynamic. Illustrative examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the results. First, a numerical one is given to demonstrate the applicability of the obtained conditions. Second, an application on a real world example is provided to highlight the usefulness of the approach.
TOPICS: Delays, Linear systems, System dynamics, Simulation
Ritu Raj and Mohan Bosukonda Murali
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042463
In this paper an attempt has been made to generalize the analytical structure of Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy Two-Input Two-Output (TITO) Proportional-Integral (PI) and Proportional-Derivative (PD) controllers using multiple input fuzzy sets. Two models of fuzzy TITO PI and PD controllers are proposed based on two distinct control strategies. The inputs are fuzzified by multiple fuzzy sets with trapezoidal/triangular membership functions. The generalized rule base consists of nine control rules imbibing the complete control strategy and is closer in spirit to TS rule base. Algebraic Product (AP) triangular norm, Bounded Sum (BS) triangular co-norm and Center of Gravity (CoG) defuzzifier are applied to derive the models. The models of the fuzzy TITO PI/PD controllers with multiple input fuzzy sets are (nonlinear) variable gain/structure controllers. Also, each output of the fuzzy controller is the sum of two nonlinear PI or PD controllers with variable gains. The gain variation and properties of the proposed controllers are studied. Two examples of nonlinear dynamic processes are considered to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed controllers.
TOPICS: Control equipment, Center of mass, Algebra
Kamil Cetin, Enver Tatlicioglu and Erkan Zergeroglu
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042464
In this study, an extended Jacobian matrix formulation is proposed for the operational space tracking control of kinematically redundant robot manipulators with multiple sub-task objectives. Furthermore, to compensate the structured uncertainties related to the robot dynamics, an adaptive operational space controller is designed and then the corresponding stability analysis is presented for kinematically redundant robot manipulators. Specifically, the proposed method is concerned with not only the stability of operational space objective but also the stability of multiple sub-task objectives. The combined stability analysis of the operational space objective and the sub-task objectives are obtained via Lyapunov based arguments. Experimental and simulation studies are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.
TOPICS: Adaptive control, Manipulators, Stability, Control equipment, Simulation, Jacobian matrices, Robot dynamics, Tracking control, Uncertainty
Shanti Swaroop Kandala, Thomas K. Uchida and Chandrika Prakash Vyasarayani
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042465
Many dynamic systems of practical interest have inherent time delays and thus are governed by delay differential equations (DDEs). Because DDEs are infinite dimensional, time-delayed systems may be difficult to stabilize using traditional controller design strategies. We apply the Galerkin approximation method using a new pseudoinverse-based technique for embedding the boundary conditions, which results in a simpler mathematical derivation than has been presented previously. We then use the pole placement technique to design closed-loop feedback gains that stabilize time delayed systems, and verify our results through comparison to those reported in the literature. Finally, we perform experimental validation by applying our method to stabilize a rotary inverted pendulum system with inherent sensing delays as well as additional time delays that are introduced deliberately. The proposed approach is easily implemented and performs at least as well as existing methods.
TOPICS: Galerkin method, Pole placement, Time delay systems, Delay differential equations, Delays, Design, Dynamic systems, Boundary-value problems, Feedback, Pendulums, Control equipment
Wenfeng Li, Zhengchao Xie, Pak Kin Wong, Xinbo Ma, Yucong Cao and Jing Zhao
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042468
The vehicle active suspension has drawn considerable attention due to its superiority in improving the vehicle dynamic performance. This paper investigates the non-fragile H8 control of delayed vehicle active suspension in finite frequency range under non-stationary running. The control objective is to improve ride quality in finite frequency band and ensure suspension constraints, and a quarter car model of active suspension is established for controller design. Then, the input delay, actuator uncertainty and external disturbances are considered in the controller design. Moreover, a further generalization of the strict S-procedure is utilized to derive a sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) to capture performance in the concerned frequency range. Furthermore, a multi-objective controller is designed based on projection lemma in the framework of the solution of LMIs. A non-stationary road profile is established and numerical simulations are also conducted to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller. Finally, experimental tests on a quarter-car test rig are implemented to examine the performance of the proposed controller for real applications.
TOPICS: Control equipment, Computer simulation, Suspension systems, Electromagnetic spectrum, Actuators, Design, Vehicles, Delays, Linear matrix inequalities, Roads, Robustness, Uncertainty
Islem Labidi, Nadia Zanzouri and Asma Takrouni
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042378
This paper proposes a novel Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) scheme for a class of hybrid dynamical system subject to sensor faults. The corresponding FTC architecture is designed around a reconfiguration mechanism. It aims to compensate the effects of the sensors degradation and maintain satisfactory performances including continuous stability. Moreover, by using the Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) approach, a fault estimation algorithm is fulfilled and the compromise between robustness to disturbances and sensitivity to fault is guaranteed. For the sake of trajectory tracking, a combined robust state feedback and PID control system is proposed herein. Finally, extensive simulation results conducted on two-link arm system are included to illustrate the efficiency of the designed FTC scheme.
TOPICS: Stability, Sensors, Control systems, Trajectories (Physics), Algorithms, Dynamic systems, Linear matrix inequalities, Robustness, Simulation results, State feedback
Jiqiang Wang, Yang Gao, Weicun Zhang and Zhongzhi Hu
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042379
The inherent nonlinear nature of engine dynamics necessitates advanced design techniques for transient control. Conventional design methodologies are either not ready to apply to large flight envelope control or failing to provide protection over a variety of physical limits. This paper proposes an active set-based method for performance optimization over large envelope while providing limit protection over all sorts of constraints. Detailed design procedures are provided and extensive numerical investigations are presented with both robustness and implantation issues discussed. Comparisons with both conventional schedule-based control and an advanced nonlinear generalized minimum variance-based control are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
TOPICS: Engines, Optimization, Turbofans, Design, Engineering design processes, Transients (Dynamics), Dynamics (Mechanics), Robustness, Flight
Umut Zalluhoglu, Julien Marck, Hossam Gharib and Yiming Zhao
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042380
This paper discusses borehole propagation modeling in the drilling industry. A three-dimensional (3D) borehole propagation model is proposed that tracks the wellbore/stabilizer contact caused by an overgauged borehole. The resulting model represents a nonlinear delayed system that can be efficiently used to simulate borehole propagation. Simulations are provided to show the model capabilities to capture various drilling scenarios. The predictions are also validated with actual field-test data from mud-motor and rotary-steerable operations. The proposed model can be used to (a) design mud motors and rotary steerable systems (RSSs) and evaluate their steering performance, (b) design and test surface and downhole controllers for wellplan tracking, and (c) provide predictive recommendations to help directional driller operators make steering decisions while drilling.
TOPICS: Control equipment, Motors, Drilling, Simulation, Design, Engineering simulation, Modeling
Min Li, Ming Liu, Yingchun Zhang and Zhuo Chen
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042243
This paper deals with the fault observer and fault-tolerant controller design for singular Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems subject to actuator faults. First, a novel PI observer is constructed to estimate the system states and faults. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the proposed observer are given in linear matrix inequality (LMI) terms. Furthermore, based on the state and fault estimation, a fault tolerant controller is designed to effectively accommodate the influence of fault upon state and ensure that the closed-loop system is stable. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the presented method.
TOPICS: Fuzzy logic, Control equipment, Actuators, Design, Closed loop systems, Linear matrix inequalities
David Ruiz Diez, Efstathios Velenis, Davide Tavernini, Edward N. Smith, Efstathios Siampis and Amir Soltani
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4042062
Vehicles equipped with multiple electric machines allow variable distribution of propulsive and regenerative braking torques between axles or even individual wheels of the car. Left/right torque vectoring (i.e. torque shift between wheels of the same axle) has been treated extensively in the literature yet very few studies approach the problem that considers torque shift between the front and rear axles, namely front/rear torque vectoring, a drivetrain topology more suitable for mass production since it reduces complexity and cost. In this paper we propose a control strategy that can enhance vehicle agility and "fun-to-drive" for such a topology or, if necessary, mitigate oversteer. The whole strategy is formulated in terms of physical quantities that are directly connected to the vehicle dynamic behaviour like torques and forces, instead of non-physical control signals. Hence, it is possible to easily incorporate the limitations of the electric machines and tyres into the computation of the control action. Furthermore, this approach allows us to perform an offline study to assess the effectiveness of the proposed strategy considering physical limitations before any tests or simulations. The development of the complete strategy is presented together with the aforementioned effectiveness study and the results from Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulations, using a high fidelity vehicle model and covering various use cases.
TOPICS: Torque, Electric vehicles, Vehicles, Machinery, Simulation, Topology, Engineering simulation, Wheels, Tires, Hardware, Mass production, Computation, Regenerative braking, Signals
Douglas/J. Freese and Yunjun Xu
J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control   doi: 10.1115/1.4041850
Accurate path scouting control of an autonomous agricultural robot is substantially influenced by terrain variability, field patterns, and uncertainties in sensed information. Based on conventional farming techniques, the targeted test crop of strawberries grows in semistructured environments. Thus in this study, the proposed scouting control architecture comprises of three distinct portions and in each portion different sensors are used. Based on range finder information, the first region uses a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with logic steps to account for undesirable pop-up events. In the other two portions, vision based robust controllers are developed, in which a new bound is derived for the focal length uncertainty in vision. Stabilities of the controllers are proven and the reachabilities are analyzed to guarantee that the final state of each portion is within a desired initial region of the next portion controller. The proposed multi-phase scouting control is successfully validated for our custom-designed robot in a commercial strawberry farm.
TOPICS: Robots, Control equipment, Uncertainty, Sensors

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