Research Papers

On the Control of Engine Start/Stop Dynamics in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

[+] Author and Article Information
Marcello Canova1

Center for Automotive Research, Ohio State University, 930 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212canova.1@osu.edu

Yann Guezennec, Steve Yurkovich

Center for Automotive Research, Ohio State University, 930 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212


Corresponding author.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 131(6), 061005 (Nov 10, 2009) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000066 History: Received May 05, 2008; Revised April 28, 2009; Published November 10, 2009; Online November 10, 2009

The starter/alternator technology is considered an easily realizable hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configuration to achieve significant fuel economy without compromising consumer acceptability. Several examples can be found in production or near-production vehicles, with implementation based on a spark ignition (SI) engine coupled with either a belted starter/alternator (BSA) or an integrated starter/alternator (ISA). One of the many challenges in successfully developing a starter/alternator HEV is to achieve engine start and stop operations with minimum passenger discomfort. This requires control of the electric motor to start and stop the engine quickly and smoothly, without compromising the vehicle noise, vibration, and harshness signature. The issue becomes more critical in the case of diesel hybrids, as the peak compression torque is much larger than in SI engines. This paper documents the results of a research activity focused on the control of the start and stop dynamics of a HEV with a belted starter/alternator. The work was conducted on a production 1.9 l common-rail diesel engine coupled to a 10.6 kW permanent magnet motor. The system is part of a series/parallel HEV powertrain, designed to fit a midsize prototype sport utility vehicle. A preliminary experimental investigation was done to assess the feasibility of the concept and to partially characterize the system. This facilitated the design of a control-oriented nonlinear model of the system dynamics and its validation on the complete HEV hardware. Model-based control techniques were then applied to design a controller for the belted starter/alternator, ensuring quick and smooth engine start operations. The final control design has been implemented on the vehicle. The research outcomes demonstrated that the BSA is effective in starting the diesel engine quickly and with very limited vibration and noise.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Torque , Engines
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Figure 1

Challenge X hybrid powertrain architecture

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Figure 2

Overview of the initial experimental setup

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Figure 3

Engine speed trace during start transient operated using the BSA as a conventional starter

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Figure 4

Engine speed trace and BSA torque during start experiment

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Figure 5

Schematic of the engine and BSA system model

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Figure 6

Structure of the engine torque model

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Figure 7

Schematic of the engine crank-slider mechanism

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Figure 8

Engine speed comparison during the initial cranking phase

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Figure 9

Mean engine speed comparison during the motoring test

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Figure 10

Experimental characterization of open-loop engine start transient

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Figure 11

Detail on engine start validation

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Figure 12

Detail on engine stop validation

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Figure 13

Crankshaft RMS acceleration during open-loop start

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Figure 14

Structure of the controller for engine start/stop

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Figure 15

Response of the second- order compensator to various disturbances on linear model (simulation results)

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Figure 16

Simulation of closed-loop start with lead-lag controller

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Figure 17

Influence of the lead-lag controller parameters on drivability and NVH metrics (simulation results)

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Figure 18

Comparison of the engine speed profile during engine start (simulation results)

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Figure 19

Comparison of the engine torque during engine start (simulation results)

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Figure 20

Experimental engine start/stop test with LQR-based BSA feedback control (vehicle results)

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Figure 21

Engine speed, BSA torque, and vehicle longitudinal acceleration during start/stop test with LQR-based BSA feedback control (vehicle results)

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Figure 22

Comparison of engine start with PI and LQR-based BSA feedback control (vehicle results)



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