Research Articles

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Biodiesel Blend Level Estimation in Diesel Engines

[+] Author and Article Information
Junfeng Zhao

e-mail: zhao.557@osu.edu

Junmin Wang

e-mail: wang.1381@osu.edu
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNALOF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received November 23, 2011; final manuscript received April 26, 2012; published online October 30, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Xubin Song.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(1), 011010 (Oct 30, 2012) (7 pages) Paper No: DS-11-1364; doi: 10.1115/1.4006884 History: Received November 23, 2011; Revised April 26, 2012

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or other sources, and it can be made into biodiesel blends by mixing with conventional diesel. To achieve optimal engine combustion as well as minimal emissions with biodiesel blends, on-board blend level estimation system is one of the prerequisites. The paper investigates a blend level estimation system by evaluating exhaust oxygen fraction differences between diesel and biodiesel. In the system, a wideband oxygen sensor is utilized to measure the oxygen concentration. Then, research on the oxygen-content based biodiesel blend level estimation system is extended by taking the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) into account. Since estimation accuracy under the lean conditions for this kind of system has been especially problematic, the effect of EGR on system estimation uncertainty is discussed. The theoretical formulation shows that oxygen consumption factor is an intrinsic indicator of fuels, which is not affected by the EGR level. However, the “shifting effect” caused by introducing EGR can help moving the estimation points into a range where not only the oxygen sensor but also the whole estimation system exhibits lower measurement uncertainty. Validations are provided by both simulation results based on a high-fidelity GT-Power engine model and experimental results on a medium-duty turbo-charged diesel engine platform.

© 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Schmidt, K., and Van Gerpen, J., 1996, “The Effect of Biodiesel Fuel Composition on Diesel Combustion and Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper Series No. 961086.
McCormick, R. L., Alvarez, J. R., and Graboski, M. S., 2003, “NOx Solutions for Biodiesel,” Report No. NREL/SR-510-31465.
Bunce, M., Snyder, D., Adi, G., Hall, C., Koehler, J., Davila, B., Kumar, S., Garimella, P., Stanton, D., and Shaver, G., 2011, “Optimization of Soy-Biodiesel Combustion in a Modern Diesel Engine,” Fuel, 90, pp.2560–2570. [CrossRef]
Szybist, J. P., Kirby, S. R., and Boehman, A. L., 2005, “NOx Emissions of Alternative Diesel Fuels: A Comparative Analysis of Biodiesel and FT Diesel,” Energy Fuels, 19, pp.1484–1492. [CrossRef]
Ahn, K.-H., Stefanopoulou, A. G., and Jankovic, M., 2008, “Estimation of Ethanol Content in Flex-Fuel Vehicles Using an Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor: Model, Tuning and Sensitivity,” Proceedings of 2008 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference.
Snyder, D. B., Adi, G. H., Bunce, M. P., Satkoski, C. A., and Shaver, G. M., 2009, “Steady-State Biodiesel Blend Estimation via a Wideband Oxygen Sensor,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 131(4), p.041012. [CrossRef]
Mirheidari, S., Mohammadpour, J., Grigoriadis, K. M., and Franchek, M. A., 2010, “Biodiesel Blend Estimation Based on Fuel Consumption and Engine Power,” Proceedings of 2010 American Control Conference.
Zawadzki, A., Shrestha, D. S., and He, B., 2007, “Biodiesel Blend Level Detection Using Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra,” Trans. ASABE, 50(4), pp.1349–1353.
Ahn, K., Stefanopoulou, A. G., Jiang, L., and Yilmaz, H., 2010, “Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Measurements,” SAE World Congress & Exhibition, Paper No. 2010-01-0166.
Tat, M. E., and Van Gerpen, J. H., 2003, “Biodiesel Blend Detection With a Fuel Composition Sensor,” Appl. Eng. Agric., 19, pp.125–131.
Knothe, G., 2001, “Determining the Blend Level of Mixtures of Biodiesel With Conventional Diesel Fuel by Fiber-Optic Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 78, pp.1025–1028. [CrossRef]
Snyder, D. B., Adi, G. H., Bunce, M. P., Satkoski, C. A., and Shaver, G. M., 2010, “Fuel Blend Fraction Estimation for Fuel-Flexible Combustion Control: Uncertainty Analysis,” Control Eng. Pract., 18, pp.418–432. [CrossRef]
Wang, J., Neely, G. D., and Ryan, T. W., III, 2007, “On-Board Fuel Property Classifier for Fuel Property Adaptive Engine Control System,” SAE Trans. J. Engines, 115, pp.45–60. [CrossRef]
Van Gerpen, J., 1996, “Cetane Number Testing of Biodiesel,” Proceedings of the Third Liquid Fuels Conference, pp.197–206.
Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Zheng, J., 2009, “Use of an Engine Cycle Simulation to Study a Biodiesel Fueled Engine,” M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Bittle, J. A., Knight, B. M., and Jacobs, T. J., 2009, “The Impact of Biodiesel on Injection Timing and Pulsewidth in a Common-Rail Medium-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 2, pp.312–325. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Approximation forms of oxygen consumption factor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Validation of fuel model through cylinder pressure information

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Fuel injection controller

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Trapped mass in cylinder at different loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Simulation results for EGR “shifting effect”

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental engine setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mass fractions at different operating points

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

MAF at different operating points

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Experimental results for EGR “shifting effect”



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In