Research Papers

Development of a Hybrid Dynamic Model and Experimental Identification of Robotic Bulldozing

[+] Author and Article Information
Scott G. Olsen

e-mail: olsensg@gmail.com

Gary M. Bone

e-mail: gary@mcmaster.ca
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7, Canada

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received December 15, 2011; final manuscript received September 25, 2012; published online December 21, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Evangelos Papadopoulos.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 135(2), 021015 (Dec 21, 2012) (10 pages) Paper No: DS-11-1391; doi: 10.1115/1.4023061 History: Received December 15, 2011; Revised September 25, 2012

The low-level modeling and control of mobile robots that interact forcibly with their environment, such as robotic excavation machinery, is a challenging problem that has not been adequately addressed in prior research. This paper investigates the low-level modeling of robotic bulldozing. The proposed model characterizes the three primary degrees-of-freedom (DOF) of the bulldozer, the blade position, the material accumulation on the blade, and the material distribution in the environment. It includes discrete operation modes contained within a hybrid dynamic model framework. The dynamics of the individual modes are represented by a set of linear and nonlinear differential equations. An instrumented scaled-down bulldozer and environment are developed to emulate the full scale operation. Model parameter estimation and validation are completed using experimental data from this system. The model is refined based on a global sensitivity analysis. The refined model is suitable for simulation and design of robotic bulldozing control strategies.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ito, N., 1991, “Bulldozer Blade Control,” J. Terramech., 28(1), pp. 65–71. [CrossRef]
Terano, T., Masui, S., and Nagaya, K., 1992, “Experimental Study of Fuzzy Control for Bulldozer,” Proceedings of the IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON '92), Melbourne, Australia, Nov. 11–13, pp. 644–647. [CrossRef]
Parker, C. A. C., Zhang, H., and Kube, C. R., 2003, “Blind Bulldozing: Multiple Robot Nest Construction,” Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, Las Vegas, NV, Oct. 27–31, pp. 2010–2015. [CrossRef]
Thangavelautham, J., El Samid, N. A., Grouchy, P., Earon, E., Fu, T., Nagrani, N., and D'Eleuterio, G. M. T., 2009, “Evolving Multirobot Excavation Controllers and Choice of Platforms Using an Artificial Neural Tissue Paradigm,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation (CIRA), pp. 258–265. [CrossRef]
Shi, X., Lever, P. J. A., and Wang, F.-Y., 1996, “Fuzzy Behavior Integration and Action Fusion for Robotic Excavation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Instrum., 43(3), pp. 395–402. [CrossRef]
Takahashi, H., Hasegawa, M., and Nakano, E., 1999, “Analysis on the Resistive Forces Acting on the Bucket of a Load-Haul-Dump Machine and a Wheel Loader in the Scooping Task,” Adv. Rob., 13(2), pp. 97–114. [CrossRef]
Althoefer, K., Tan, C. P., Zweiri, Y. H., and Seneviratne, L. D., 2009, “Hybrid Soil Parameter Measurement and Estimation Scheme for Excavation Automation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 58(10), pp. 3633–3641. [CrossRef]
Bevly, D. M., Gerdes, J. C., and Parkinson, B. W., 2002, “A New Yaw Dynamic Model for Improved High Speed Control of a Farm Tractor,” ASME J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control, 124(4), pp. 659–667. [CrossRef]
Gartley, E., and Bevly, D. M., 2008, “Online Estimation of Implement Dynamics for Adaptive Steering Control of Farm Tractors,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 13(4), pp. 429–440. [CrossRef]
Le, A. T., Rye, D. C., and Durrant-Whyte, H. F., 1997, “Estimation of Track-Soil Interactions for Autonomous Tracked Vehicles,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Albuquerque, NM, Apr. 20–25, pp. 1388–1393. [CrossRef]
Branicky, M. S., Borkar, V. S., and Mitter, S. K., 1998, “A Unified Framework for Hybrid Control: Model and Optimal Control Theory,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, 43(1), pp. 31–45. [CrossRef]
Perttunen, C. D., Jones, D. R., and Stuckman, B. E., 1993, “Lipschitzian Optimization Without the Lipschitz Constant,” J. Optim. Theory Appl., 79(1), pp. 157–181. [CrossRef]
Finkel, D. E., 2004, “Direct—A Global Optimization Algorithm,” http://www4.ncsu.edu/~ctk/Finkel_Direct/
Homma, T., and Saltelli, A., 1996, “Importance Measures in Global Sensitivity Analysis of Nonlinear Models,” Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., 52(1), pp. 1–17. [CrossRef]
Sobol, I. M., 2001, “Global Sensitivity Indices for Nonlinear Mathematical Models and Their Monte Carlo Estimates,” Math. Comput. Simul., 55(1), pp. 271–280. [CrossRef]
Rodriguez-Fernandez, M., and Banga, J. R., 2010, “SensSB: A Software Toolbox for the Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Systems Biology Models,” Bioinformatics, 26(13), pp. 1675–1676. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Teleoperated bulldozer used in underground mining

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Illustration of the state variables da, xb, zb, zc, φ, and ζ; and auxiliary variables ha, hb, and hc (note that Pb = [xb zb]T and Pc = [xc zc]T)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mode transition diagram

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Instrumented scaled-down robot bulldozer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Diagram of experimental robot and environment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Photograph of the experimental robot and environment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Example of a material profile scan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Example of the average material profile height along the robot path after zero, two, and four passes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Simulation of da, vb, and Φ dynamics with reduced and full sets of estimated parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Measured and predicted states for a 3-step ahead prediction horizon, rb and Γ from one pass of the validation data set



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In