Research Papers

Heading Estimation Based on Magnetic Markers for Intelligent Vehicles

[+] Author and Article Information
Yeun Sub Byun

Metropolitan Transportation Research Center,
Korea Railroad Research Institute,
#176 Cheoldobakmulkwan-ro, Uiwang-si,
Gyeonggi-do 16105, South Korea
e-mail: ysbyun@krri.re.kr

Young Chol Kim

Department of Electronics Engineering,
Chungbuk National University,
1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju,
Chungbuk 28644, South Korea
e-mail: yckim@cbu.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received May 6, 2015; final manuscript received March 4, 2016; published online May 13, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Beshah Ayalew.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 138(7), 071009 (May 13, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1205; doi: 10.1115/1.4033021 History: Received May 06, 2015; Revised March 04, 2016

This paper presents a new real-time heading estimation method for an all-wheel steered single-articulated autonomous vehicle guided by a magnetic marker system. To achieve good guidance control for the vehicle, precise estimation of the position and heading angle during travel is necessary. The main concept of this study is to estimate the heading angle from the relative orientations of the magnetic markers and the vehicle motion. To achieve this, a kinematic model of the all-wheel steered vehicle is derived and combined with the motion of a magnetic ruler mounted near each axle underneath the vehicle. The position coordinates and polarities of the magnetic markers, which are provided a priori, are used to determine the vehicle position at every detection instance. A gyroscope is employed to assist real-time heading estimation at sample times when there are no marker detection data. The proposed method was tested on a real vehicle and evaluated by comparing the experimental results with those of the differential global positioning system (DGPS) in real-time kinematics (RTK) mode. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibits good performance for heading estimation.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Vehicles , Wheels
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Fig. 2

Sensors installed in the test vehicle

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Fig. 3

Magnetic ruler mounted underneath the test vehicle

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Fig. 4

Structure of the magnetic ruler (yms = 0): measurement origin of the magnetic sensor

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Fig. 5

Schematic of marker detection

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Fig. 6

Concept of heading angle estimation

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Fig. 7

Geometric relationships for the heading angle and ruler motion

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Fig. 8

Kinematic model of ruler motion

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Fig. 10

Locations of all magnetic markers and the markers detected during the test run

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Fig. 11

Comparison of heading angles

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Fig. 12

DGPS and estimated heading

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Fig. 13

Gyroscope angle during eight test laps and drift

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Fig. 14

Differences between the proposed heading estimation results and the gyroscope results during eight test laps

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Fig. 15

Steering angles of four wheels during eight test laps

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Fig. 16

Velocities of four wheels during eight test laps



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