Research Papers

The Sensitivity of Joint Torques During Running to Forceplate Data Error

[+] Author and Article Information
Anne Schmitz

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Gannon University,
109 University Square,
Erie, PA 16541
e-mail: schmitz005@gannon.edu

Jaclyn Norberg

Department of Sport and Movement Science,
Salem State University,
352 Lafayette Street,
Salem, MA 01970
e-mail: Jnorberg@salemstate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Dynamic Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS, MEASUREMENT, AND CONTROL. Manuscript received July 14, 2015; final manuscript received June 3, 2016; published online June 30, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Xiaopeng Zhao.

J. Dyn. Sys., Meas., Control 138(11), 111001 (Jun 30, 2016) (5 pages) Paper No: DS-15-1317; doi: 10.1115/1.4033829 History: Received July 14, 2015; Revised June 03, 2016

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between forceplate inaccuracies and joint torques during running. Instrumented gait analysis data were collected on a single subject running above ground. A Monte Carlo analysis was performed using 60 simulations. In each simulation, joint torques were computed as the ground reaction force (GRF) data were perturbed. Errors in joint torques were larger for proximal joints compared to the distal joints. These errors in joint torques were due more to inaccuracies in the GRF magnitude than the center of pressure (COP) measurements. Clinically, these results may be used to determine a priori the forceplate accuracy needed to measure a desired difference in joint torque between patient populations.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Torque , Errors , Knee
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hart, J. M. , Ko, J.-W. K. , Konold, T. , and Pietrosimione, B. , 2010, “ Sagittal Plane Knee Joint Moments Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Reconstruction: A Systematic Review,” Clin. Biomech., 25(4), pp. 277–283. [CrossRef]
Riemer, R. , Hsiao-Wecksler, E. T. , and Zhang, X. , 2008, “ Uncertainties in Inverse Dynamics Solutions: A Comprehensive Analysis and An Application to Gait,” Gait Posture, 27(4), pp. 578–588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Reinbolt, J. A. , Haftka, R. T. , Chmielewski, T. L. , and Fregly, B. J. , 2007, “ Are Patient-Specific Joint and Inertial Parameters Necessary for Accurate Inverse Dynamics Analyses of Gait?,” IEEE Trans. BME, 54(5), pp. 782–793. [CrossRef]
Rao, G. , Amarantini, D. , Berton, E. , and Favier, D. , 2006, “ Influence of Body Segments' Parameters Estimation Models on Inverse Dynamics Solutions During Gait,” J. Biomech., 39(8), pp. 1531–1536. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ganley, K. J. , and Powers, C. M. , 2004, “ Determination of Lower Extremity Anthropometric Parameters Using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: The Influence on Net Joint Moments During Gait,” Clin. Biomech., 19(1), pp. 50–56. [CrossRef]
Silva, M. , and Ambrósio, J. A. , 2004, “ Sensitivity of the Results Produced by the Inverse Dynamic Analysis of a Human Stride to Perturbed Input Data,” Gait Posture, 19(1), pp. 35–49. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pearsall, D. , and Costigan, P. , 1999, “ The Effect of Segment Parameter Error on Gait Analysis Results,” Gait Posture, 9(3), pp. 173–183. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Holden, J. P. , Orsini, J. A. , Siegel, K. L. , Kepple, T. M. , Gerber, L. H. , and Stanhope, S. J. , 1997, “ Surface Movement Errors in Shank Kinematics and Knee Kinetics During Gait,” Gait Posture, 5(3), pp. 217–227. [CrossRef]
Donoghue, O. A. , Harrison, A. J. , Coffey, N. , and Hayes, K. , 2008, “ Functional Data Analysis of Running Kinematics in Chronic Achilles Tendon Injury,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 40(7), pp. 1323–1335. [CrossRef]
Noehren, B. , Schmitz, A. , Hempel, R. , Westlake, C. , and Black, W. , 2014, “ Assessment of Strength, Flexibility, and Running Mechanics in Men With Iliotibial Band Syndrome,” JOSPT, 44(3), pp. 217–222. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tashman, S. , Kolowich, P. , Collon, D. , Anderson, K. , and Anderst, W. , 2007, “ Dynamic Function of the ACL-Reconstructed Knee During Running,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res., 454, pp. 66–73. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hreljac, A. , 2004, “ Impact and Overuse Injuries in Runners,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 36(5), pp. 845–849. [CrossRef]
Besier, T. F. , Fredericson, M. , Gold, G. E. , Beaupré, G. S. , and Delp, S. L. , 2009, “ Knee Muscle Forces During Walking and Running in Patellofemoral Pain Patients and Pain-Free Controls,” J. Biomech., 42(7), pp. 898–905. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ferber, R. , Noehren, B. , Hamill, J. , and Davis, I. , 2010, “ Competitive Female Runners With a History of Iliotibial Band Syndrome Demonstrate Atypical Hip and Knee Kinematics,” JOSPT, 40(2), pp. 52–58. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McCaw, S. T. , and DeVita, P. , 1995, “ Errors in Alignment of Center of Pressure and Foot Coordinates Affect Predicted Lower Extremity Torques,” J. Biomech., 28(8), pp. 985–988. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Norberg, J. D. , 2015, “ Biomechanical Analysis of Race Walking Compared to Normal Walking and Running Gait,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.
Collins, S. H. , Adamczyk, P. G. , Ferris, D. P. , and Kuo, A. D. , 2009, “ A Simple Method for Calibrating Force Plates and Force Treadmills Using an Instrumented Pole,” Gait Posture, 29(1), pp. 59–64. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Winter, D. A. , 2009, Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, Wiley, New York.
“ Inverse Dynamics,” Wikipedia, last modified December 18, 2015, https://www.c-motion.com/v3dwiki/index.php?title=Inverse_Dynamics
Noehren, B. , Pohl, M. B. , Sanchez, Z. , Cunningham, T. , and Lattermann, C. , 2012, “ Proximal and Distal Kinematics in Female Runners With Patellofemoral Pain,” Clin. Biomech., 27(4), pp. 366–371. [CrossRef]
Bell, A. L. , Pedersen, D. R. , and Brand, R. A. , 1990, “ A Comparison of the Accuracy of Several Hip Center Location Prediction Methods,” J. Biomech., 23(6), pp. 617–621. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bell, A. L. , Brand, R. A. , and Pedersen, D. R. , 1989, “ Prediction of Hip Joint Centre Location From External Landmarks,” Human Mov. Sci., 8(1), pp. 3–16. [CrossRef]
Pohl, M. B. , Messenger, N. , and Buckley, J. G. , 2007, “ Forefoot, Rearfoot and Shank Coupling: Effect of Variations in Speed and Mode of Gait,” Gait Posture, 25(2), pp. 295–302. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hanavan, E. P., Jr. , 1964, A Mathematical Model of the Human Body, No. AFIT-GA-PHYS-64-3. Air Force Aerospace Medical Research Lab, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
Glen, G. , and Isaacs, K. , 2012, “ Estimating Sobol Sensitivity Indices Using Correlations,” Environ. Modell. Software, 37, pp. 157–166. [CrossRef]
Field, A. , 2009, Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Pisciotta, E. , Becker, J. , Sinsurin, K. , James, S. , Osternig, L. , and Chou, L. , 2011, “ Center of Pressure Trajectory Differences Between Shod and Barefoot Running,” The 2011 ASB Annual Meeting, University of Southern California, Long Beach, CA, Sept. 11.
Schache, A. G. , Blanch, P. D. , Dorn, T. W. , Brown, N. , Rosemond, D. , and Pandy, M. G. , 2011, “ Effect of Running Speed on Lower Limb Joint Kinetics,” Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 43(7), pp. 1260–1271. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Retroreflective markers placed on the body to create body-fixed reference frames

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Flowchart of the Monte Carlo analysis performed. Visual 3D was used as the dynamics engine and matlab as the processing software.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In