Abstract

The state of the art of lead-free solder joint reliability is investigated in this study. Emphasis is placed on the design for reliability (DFR) and reliability testing and data analysis. For DFR: (a) the Norton power creep constitutive equations and examples for Au20Sn, Sn58Bi, Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu, and Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu0.03Ce, (b) the Wises two power creep constitutive equations and examples for Sn3.5Ag and Sn4Ag0.5Cu, (c) the Garofalo hyperbolic sine creep constitutive equations and examples for Sn3.5Ag, Sn3Ag0.5Cu, Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu, Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu, Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu, and Sn3.5Ag0.75Cu, Sn4Ag0.5Cu, Sn(3.5-3.9)Ag(0.5-0.8)Cu, 100In, Sn52In, Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu0.03Ce, and Au20Sn, and (d) the Anand viscoplasticity constitutive equations and examples for Sn3.5Ag, Sn3Ag0.5Cu, Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu, Sn3.8Ag0.7CuCe, Sn3.8Ag0.7CuAl, Au20Sn, Sn3.5Ag with temperature and strain rate-dependent parameters, and Sn1Ag0.5Cu, Sn2Ag0.5Cu, Sn3Ag0.5Cu, and Sn4Ag0.5Cu after extreme aging will be discussed. For reliability testing and data analysis: (a) the Weibull and lognormal life distributions for lead-free solder joints under thermal-cycling and drop tests, (b) the true Weibull slope, true characteristic life, and true mean life, and (c) the linear acceleration factors for various lead-free solder alloys based on: (i) frequency and maximum temperature, (ii) dwell time and maximum temperature, and (iii) frequency and mean temperature will be presented. Some recommendations will also be provided.

References

References
1.
Lau
,
J. H.
, (Ed.),
1991
,
Solder Joint Reliability: Theory and Applications
,
Van Nostrand Reinhold
,
New York
.
2.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
1990
,
Design for Reliability, Reliability Testing and Data Analysis, and Failure Analysis of Solder Joints
,
NEPCON West Workshops
,
Anaheim, CA
.
3.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Gratalo
,
K.
,
Schneider
,
E.
,
Marcotte
,
T.
, and
Baker
,
T.
,
1996
, “
Solder Joint Reliability of Large Plastic Ball Grid Array Assemblies
,”
J. Inst. Interconnect. Technol.
,
22
(
1
), pp.
27
32
.10.1108/03056129610799912
4.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Schneider
,
E.
, and
Baker
,
T.
,
1996
, “
Shock and Vibration of Solder Bumped Flip Chip on Organic Coated Copper Boards
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
118
(
2
), pp.
101
104
.10.1115/1.2792127
5.
Lee
,
S. W. R.
, and
Lau
,
J. H.
,
1997
, “
Design for Plastic Ball Grid Array Solder Joint Reliability
,”
J. Inst. Interconnect. Technol.
,
23
(
2
), pp.
11
13
.10.1108/03056129710370132
6.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Pao
,
Y.
,
1997
,
Solder Joint Reliability of BGA, CSP, Flip Chip, and Fine Pitch SMT Assemblies
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
7.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Chang
,
C.
, and
Chen
,
C.
,
1999
, “
Characteristics and Reliability of No-Flow Underfills for Solder Bumped Flip Chip Assemblies
,”
Int. J. Microcircuit Electron. Packaging, IMAPS Trans.
,
22
(
4
), pp.
370
381
.https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Characteristics-and-Reliability-of-No-Flow-for-Flip-Lau-Chang/d037af4ff859d09020bafc9d82921edc14adc888
8.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
2000
,
Low-Cost Flip Chip Technology
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
9.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Chang
,
C.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2000
, “
Failure Analysis of Solder Bumped Flip Chip on Low-Cost Substrates
,”
IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.
,
23
(
1
), pp.
19
27
.10.1109/6104.827522
10.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2002
, “
Modeling and Analysis of 96.5Sn-3.5Ag Lead-Free Solder Joints of Wafer Level Chip Scale Package (WLCSP) on Build-Up Microvia Printed Circuit Board
,”
IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.
,
25
(
1
), pp.
51
58
.10.1109/TEPM.2002.1000483
11.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Dauksher
,
W.
,
Smetana
,
J.
,
Horsley
,
R.
,
Shangguan
,
D.
,
Castello
,
T.
,
Menis
,
I.
,
Love
,
D.
, and
Sullivan
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Design for Lead-Free Solder Joint Reliability of High-Density Packages
,”
J. Soldering Surf. Mount Technol.
,
16
(
1
), pp.
12
26
.10.1108/09540910410517013
12.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Hoo
,
N.
,
Horsley
,
R.
,
Smetana
,
J.
,
Shangguan
,
D.
,
Dauksher
,
W.
,
Love
,
D.
,
Menis
,
I.
, and
Sullivan
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Reliability Testing and Data Analysis of Lead-Free Solder Joints for High-Density Packages
,”
J. Soldering Surf. Mount Technol.
,
16
(
2
), pp.
46
68
.10.1108/09540910410537336
13.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Smetana
,
J.
,
Horsley
,
R.
,
Snowdon
,
K.
,
Shangguan
,
D.
,
Gleason
,
J.
,
Memis
,
I.
,
Love
,
D.
,
Dauksher
,
W.
, and
Sullivan
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Design, Materials, and Process for Lead-Free Assembly of High-Density Packages
,”
J. Soldering Surf. Mount Technol.
,
16
(
1
), pp.
53
62
.10.1108/09540910410517068
14.
Lau
,
J.
,
Shangguan
,
D.
,
Castello
,
T.
,
Horsley
,
R.
,
Smetana
,
J.
,
Hoo
,
N.
,
Dauksher
,
W.
,
Love
,
D.
,
Menis
,
I.
, and
Sullivan
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Failure Analysis of Lead-Free Solder Joints for High-Density Packages
,”
J. Soldering Surf. Mount Technol.
,
16
(
2
), pp.
69
76
.10.1108/09540910410537345
15.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
2018
,
Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging
,
Springer
,
New York
.
16.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Dauksher
,
W.
,
2005
, “
Reliability of an 1657CCGA (Ceramic Column Grid Array) Package With 96.5Sn3.9Ag0.6Cu Lead-Free Solder Paste on PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards)
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
127
(
2
), pp.
96
105
.10.1115/1.1846069
17.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
2006
, “
Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Joints
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
128
(
3
), pp.
297
301
.10.1115/1.2229234
18.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Li
,
M.
,
2018
, “
Reliability of Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging With Large Chips and Multiple Re-Distributed Layers
,” IEEE 68th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (
ECTC
), San Diego, CA, May 29–June 1, pp.
1568
1576
.10.1109/ECTC.2018.00239
19.
Lau
,
J.
,
Li
,
M.
,
Fan
,
N.
,
Kuah
,
E.
,
Li
,
Z.
,
Tan
,
K. H.
,
Chen
,
T.
,
Xu
,
I.
,
Li
,
M.
,
Cheung
,
Y. M.
,
Kai
,
W.
,
Hao
,
J.
,
Beica
,
R.
,
Taylor
,
T.
,
Ko
,
C. T.
,
Yang
,
H.
,
Chen
,
Y. H.
,
Lim
,
S. P.
,
Lee
,
N. C.
,
Ran
,
J.
,
Wee
,
K. S.
,
Yong
,
Q.
,
Xi
,
C.
,
Tao
,
M.
,
Lo
,
J.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2017
, “
Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging (FOWLP) of Large Chip With Multiple Redistribution-Layers (RDLs)
,”
IMAPS Trans., J. Microelectron. Electron. Packaging
,
14
(
4
), pp.
123
131
.10.4071/imaps.522798
20.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Li
,
M.
,
Li
,
Q.
,
Xu
,
I.
,
Chen
,
T.
,
Li
,
Z.
,
Tan
,
K.
,
Qing
,
X.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Wee
,
K.
,
Beica
,
R.
,
Ko
,
C.
,
Lim
,
S.
,
Fan
,
N.
,
Kuah
,
E.
,
Wu
,
K.
,
Cheung
,
Y.
,
Ng
,
E.
,
Cao
,
X.
,
Ran
,
J.
,
Yang
,
H.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Lee
,
N.
,
Tao
,
M.
,
Lo
,
J.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Design, Materials, Process, and Fabrication of Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
8
(
6
), pp.
991
1002
.10.1109/TCPMT.2018.2814595
21.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Li
,
M.
,
Tian
,
D.
,
Fan
,
N.
,
Kuah
,
E.
,
Wu
,
K.
,
Li
,
M.
,
Hao
,
J.
,
Cheung
,
Y.
,
Li
,
Z.
,
Tan
,
K.
,
Beica
,
R.
,
Taylor
,
T.
,
Lo
,
C. T.
,
Yang
,
H.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Lim
,
S.
,
Lee
,
N. C.
,
Ran
,
J.
,
Cao
,
X.
,
Koh
,
S.
, and
Young
,
Q.
,
2017
, “
Warpage and Thermal Characterization of Fan-Out Wafer-Level Packaging
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
7
, pp.
1729
1738
.10.1109/ECTC.2017.309
22.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Li
,
M.
,
Yang
,
L.
,
Li
,
M.
,
Xu
,
I.
,
Chen
,
T.
,
Chen
,
S.
,
Yong
,
Q. X.
,
Madhukumar
,
J. P.
,
Kai
,
W.
,
Fan
,
N.
,
Kuah
,
E.
,
Li
,
Z.
,
Tan
,
K. H.
,
Bao
,
W.
,
Lim
,
S. P.
,
Beica
,
R.
,
Ko
,
C.-T.
, and
Xi
,
C.
,
2018
, “
Warpage Measurements and Characterizations of FOWLP With Large Chips and Multiple RDLs
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
8
(
10
), pp.
1729
1737
.10.1109/TCPMT.2018.2848666
23.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lo
,
J.
,
Lam
,
J.
,
Soon
,
E.
,
Chow
,
W.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Effects of Underfills on the Thermal-Cycling Tests of SnAgCu PBGA Packages on ImAg PCB
,”
IEEE/EPTC Proceedings
, Singapore, Dec. 10–12, pp.
785
790
.10.1109/EPTC.2007.4469812
24.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lo
,
J.
,
Lam
,
J.
,
Soon
,
E.
,
Chow
,
W.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Effects of Aging and Underfills on Mechanical-Drop Tests of SnAgCu PBGA Packages on ImAg PCB
,”
International Conference on Electronic Materials and Packaging
, Daejeon, South Korea, Nov. 19–22, pp.
1
8
.10.1109/EMAP.2007.4510284
25.
Pang
,
J. H. L.
,
Xiong
,
B. S.
,
Neo
,
C. C.
,
Zhang
,
X. R.
, and
Low
,
T. H.
,
2003
, “
Bulk Solder and Solder Joint Properties for Lead Free 95.5Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Solder Alloy
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, New Orleans, LA, May 27–30, pp.
673
679
.10.1109/ECTC.2003.1216355
26.
Sharma
,
G.
,
Lakhera
,
N.
,
Benson
,
M.
, and
Mawer
,
A.
,
2020
, “
Advanced FOWLP for Small Form Factor and High-Performance Microcontroller Applications
,”
Chip Scale Rev.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
17
22
.10.23919/IWLPC.2019.8914130
27.
Weibull
,
W.
,
1951
, “
A Statistical Distribution Function of Wide Applicability
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
18
(
3
), pp.
293
297
.https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/88c3/7770028e7ed61180a34d6a837a9a4db3b264.pdf
28.
Johnson
,
L. G.
,
1964
,
The Statistical Treatment of Fatigue Experiments
,
Elsevier Publishing Company
,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
.
29.
Johnson
,
L. G.
,
1964
,
Theory and Technique of Variation Research
,
Elsevier Publishing Company
,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
.
30.
Johnson
,
L. G.
,
1951
, “
The Median Ranks of Sample Values in Their Population With an Application to Certain Fatigue Studies
,”
Ind. Math.
,
2
, pp.
1
9
.
31.
Mood
,
A. M.
,
Graybill
,
F.
, and
Boss
,
D.
,
1974
,
Introduction to the Theory of Statistics
, 3rd ed.,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
32.
Tobias
,
P. A.
, and
Trindade
,
D.
,
1986
,
Applied Reliability
,
Van Nostrand Reinhold
,
New York
.
33.
Grant
,
E. L.
, and
Leavenworth
,
R.
,
1980
,
Statistical Quality Control
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
34.
Lipson
,
C.
, and
Sheth
,
N.
,
1973
,
Statistical Design and Analysis of Engineering Experiments
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
35.
Vasudevan
,
V.
, and
Fan
,
X.
,
2008
, “
An Acceleration Model for Lead-Free (SAC) Solder Joint Reliability Under Thermal Cycling
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 27–30, pp.
139
145
.10.1109/ECTC.2008.4549960
36.
Lau
,
J.
,
Dauksher
,
W.
, and
Vianco
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Acceleration Models, Constitutive Equations and Reliability of Lead-Free Solders and Joints
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, New Orleans, LA, May 27–30, pp.
229
236
10.1109/ECTC.2003.1216281.
37.
Pan
,
N.
,
Henshall
,
G.
,
Billaut
,
F.
,
Dai
,
S.
,
Strum
,
M.
,
Lewis
,
R.
,
Benedetto
,
E.
, and
Rayner
,
J.
,
2005
, “
An Acceleration Model for Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joint Reliability Under Various Thermal Cycle Conditions
,”
SMTA International Conference Proceedings
, Rosemont, IL, Sept. 14–18, pp.
876
883
.
38.
Miremadi
,
J.
,
Henshall
,
G.
,
Allen
,
A.
,
Benedetto
,
E.
, and
Roesch
,
M.
,
2009
, “
Lead-Free Solder-Joint-Reliability Model Enhancement
,”
IMAPS Proceedings
, San Jose, CA, Oct. 1–3, pp.
316
323
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289296558_Lead-free_solder-joint-reliability_model_enhancement
39.
Lall
,
P.
,
Shirgaokar
,
A.
, and
Arunachalam
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Norris-Landzberg Acceleration Factor and Goldmann Constants for SAC305 Lead-Free Electronics
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
134
(
3
), p.
031008
.10.1115/1.4006863
40.
Osterman
,
M.
,
2018
, “
Modeling Temperature Cycle Fatigue Life of Select SAC Solders
,”
SMTA International Conference
, Rosemont, IL, Oct. 14–18, pp.
1
20
.https://web.calce.umd.edu/lead-free/SMTAI2018-Osterman.pdf
41.
Burke
,
C.
,
2013
, “
On the Influence of Ag Content on the Creep Behaviour of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloys
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
University of Limerick
, Limerick, Ireland.https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/On-the-influence-of-ag-content-on-the-creep-of-Burke/bcdc56e68d5477acfc50005a604fb2d5cf8d1599
42.
Depiver
,
J.
,
Mallik
,
S.
, and
Amalu
,
E.
,
2019
, “
Creep Response of Various Solders Used in Soldering Ball Grid Array (BGA) on Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
,” Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science (
WCECS
), San Francisco, CA, Oct. 22–24, pp.
1
10
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334825630_Creep_Response_of_Various_Solders_used_in_Soldering_Ball_Grid_Array_BGA_on_Printed_Circuit_Board_PCB
43.
Stang
,
E.
,
2018
, “
Constitutive Modeling of Creep in Leaded and Lead-Free Solder Alloys Using Constant Strain-Rate Tensile Testing
,”
Master thesis
,
Wright State University
, East Lansing, MI.https://corescholar.libraries.wright.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3379&context=etd_all
44.
Gong
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Microstructural Features and Mechanical Behaviour of Lead Free Solders for Microelectronic Packaging
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
Loughborough University
, Loughborough, Leicestershire.https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/Microstructural_features_and_mechanical_behaviour_of_lead_free_solders_for_microelectronic_packaging/9525503
45.
Advani
,
G.
,
2014
, “
Solder Joint Reliability: A Unified Thermo-Mechanical Model Approach
,”
Master thesis
,
North Dakota State University
, Fargo, ND.https://library.ndsu.edu/ir/bitstream/handle/10365/27256/Solder%20Joint%20Reliability%20-%20A%20Unified%20Thermo-Mechanical%20Model%20Approach.pdf?sequence=1
46.
Jud
,
P.
,
Grossmann
,
G.
,
Sennhauser
,
U.
, and
Uggowitzer
,
P.
,
2005
, “
Local Creep in SnAg3.8Cu0.7 Lead-Free Solder
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
34
(
9
), pp.
1206
1214
.10.1007/s11664-005-0265-4
47.
Shen
,
L.
,
Septiwerdani
,
P.
, and
Chen
,
Z.
,
2012
, “
Elastic Modulus Hardness and Creep Performance of SnBi Alloys
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
558
, pp.
253
258
.10.1016/j.msea.2012.07.120
48.
Shen
,
L.
,
Wu
,
Y.
,
Wang
,
S.
, and
Chen
,
Z.
,
2017
, “
Creep Behavior of Sn-Bi Solder Alloys at Elevated Temperatures Studied by Nanoindentation
,”
J. Mater Sci. Mater Electron.
,
28
(
5
), pp.
4114
4124
.10.1007/s10854-016-6031-y
49.
Zhang
,
L.
,
Xue
,
S.
,
Gao
,
L.
,
Zeng
,
G.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Yu
,
S.
, and
Sheng
,
Z.
,
2010
, “
Creep Behavior of SnAgCu Solders With Rare Earth Ce Doping
,”
Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc
,
20
(
3
), pp.
412
417
.10.1016/S1003-6326(09)60155-2
50.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Zhu
,
H.
,
Fujiwara
,
M.
,
Xu
,
J.
, and
Dao
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Low-Temperature Creep of SnPb and SnAgCu Solder Alloys and Reliability Prediction in Electronic Packaging Modules
,”
Scr. Mater.
,
68
(
8
), pp.
607
610
.10.1016/j.scriptamat.2012.12.017
51.
Chen
,
X.
,
Chen
,
G.
, and
Sakane
,
M.
,
2005
, “
Prediction of Stress-Strain Relationship With an Improved Anand Constitutive Model for Lead-Free Solder Sn-3.5Ag
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
28
, pp.
111
116
.10.1109/TCAPT.2004.843157
52.
Sun
,
W.
,
Zhu
,
W. H.
,
Che
,
F. X.
,
Wang
,
C. K.
,
Sun
,
A. Y. S.
, and
Tan
,
H. B.
,
2006
, “
Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Board-Level Temperature Cycling Performance for PBGA, FBGA and CSP
,”
IEEE/EPTC Proceedings
, Singapore, Dec. 6–8, pp.
121
126
.10.1109/EPTC.2006.342702
53.
Norton
,
F. H.
,
1929
,
The Creep of Steel at High Temperatures
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
54.
Mukherjee
,
S.
,
Nuhi
,
M.
,
Dasgupta
,
A.
, and
Modarres
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Creep Constitutive Models Suitable for Solder Alloys in Electronic Assemblies
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
138
(
3
), p.
030801
.10.1115/1.4033375
55.
Pei
,
M.
,
Fan
,
X.
, and
Bhatti
,
P. K.
,
2006
, “
Field Condition Reliability Assessment for SnPb and SnAgCu Solder Joints in Power Cycling Including Mini Cycles
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, pp.
899
905
.10.1109/ECTC.2006.1645762
56.
Fan
,
X.
,
Pei
,
M.
, and
Bhatti
,
P. K.
,
2006
, “
Effect of Finite Element Modeling Techniques on Solder Joint Fatigue Life Prediction of Flip-Chip BGA Packages
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, pp.
972
980
.10.1109/ECTC.2006.1645772
57.
Bhatti
,
P.
,
Pei
,
M.
, and
Fan
,
X.
,
2006
, “
Reliability Analysis of SnPb and SnAgCu Solder Joints in FC-BGA Packages With Thermal Enabling Preload
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, pp.
601
606
.10.1109/ECTC.2006.1645711
58.
May
,
D.
Gordon
,
A.
, and
Segletes
,
D.
,
2013
, “
The Application of the Norton-Bailey Law for Creep Prediction Through Power Law Regression
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2013-96008.10.1115/GT2013-96008
59.
Wiese
,
S.
,
Schubert
,
A.
,
Walter
,
H.
,
Dudek
,
R.
,
Feustel
,
F.
,
Meusel
,
E.
, and
Michel
,
B.
,
2001
, “
Constitutive Behaviour of Lead-Free Solders Vs. Lead-Containing Solders - Experiments on Bulk Specimens and Flip-Chip Joints
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Orlando, FL, May 29–June 1, pp.
1
13
.10.1109/ECTC.2001.927900
60.
Wiese
,
S.
,
Meusel
,
E.
, and
Wolter
,
K.
,
2003
, “
Microstructural Dependence of Constitutive Properties of Eutectic SnAg and SnAgCu Solders
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, New Orleans, LA, May 27–30, pp.
197
206
.10.1109/ECTC.2003.1216277
61.
Wiese
,
S.
,
Roellig
,
M.
, and
Wolter
,
K.-J.
,
2005
, “
Creep of Eutectic SnAgCu in Thermally Treated Solder Joints
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 31–June 3, pp.
1272
1281
.10.1109/ECTC.2005.1441433
62.
Wiese
,
S.
,
Roellig
,
M.
,
Mueller
,
M.
,
Bennemann
,
S.
,
Petzold
,
M.
, and
Wolter
,
K.-J.
,
2007
, “
The Size Effect on the Creep Properties of SnAgCu-Solder Alloys
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Reno, NV, May 29–June 1, pp.
548
557
.10.1109/ECTC.2007.373850
63.
Kamara
,
E.
,
2013
, “
Testing and Inverse Modelling for Solder Joint Reliability Assessment
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
University of Greenwich
, Eltham, London, UK.https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Testing-and-inverse-modelling-for-solder-joint-Kamara/9aac5926e8c86b82c30d16f108e9100551304323
64.
Yao
,
Y.
,
Long
,
X.
, and
Keer
,
L.
,
2017
, “
A Review of Recent Research on the Mechanical Behavior of Lead-Free Solders
,”
ASME Appl. Mech. Rev.
,
69
(
4
), p.
040802
.10.1115/1.4037462
65.
Che
,
F.
, and
Pang
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Fatigue Reliability Analysis of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joints Subjected to Thermal Cycling
,”
IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab.
,
13
(
1
), pp.
36
49
.10.1109/TDMR.2012.2195007
66.
Darveaux
,
R.
, and
Banerji
,
K.
,
1992
, “
Constitutive Relations for Tin-Based-Solder Joints
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 18–20, pp.
538
551
.
67.
Darveaux
,
R.
, and
Banerji
,
K.
,
1992
, “
Constitutive Relations for Tin-Based-Solder Joints
,”
IEEE Trans. CHMT
,
15
(
6
), pp.
1013
1024
.10.1109/33.206925
68.
Ramachandran
,
V.
,
Wu
,
K.
, and
Chiang
,
K.
,
2018
, “
Overview Study of Solder Joint Reliability Due to Creep Deformation
,”
J. Mech.
,
34
(
5
), pp.
637
643
.10.1017/jmech.2018.20
69.
Zha
,
X.
,
2016
, “
Numerical Analysis of Lead-Free Solder Joints: Effects of Thermal Cycling and Electromigration
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
Loughborough University
, Loughborough, Leicestershire.https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/Numerical_analysis_of_lead-free_solder_joints_effects_of_thermal_cycling_and_electromigration/9538871/1
70.
Zhang
,
G.
,
Jing
,
H.
,
Xu
,
L.
,
Wei
,
J.
, and
Han
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
Creep Behavior of Eutectic 80Au/20Sn Solder Alloy
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
476
(
1–2
), pp.
138
141
.10.1016/j.jallcom.2008.09.009
71.
Wang
,
Q.
,
Johnson
,
W.
,
Ma
,
H.
,
Gale
,
W.
, and
Lindahl
,
D.
,
2005
, “
Properties of Lead Free Solder Alloys as a Function of Composition Variation
,”
10th Electronic Circuit World Conversion Conference
, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 12–15, pp.
1
18
.https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Properties-of-Lead-Free-Solder-Alloys-as-a-Function-Wang-Gale/fb3a29d75d6f1dfca3a5f58f31e2b9443613cef8
72.
Schubertt
,
A.
,
Dudek
,
R.
,
Auerswald
,
E.
,
Gollhardt
,
A.
,
Michel
,
B.
, and
Reicbl
,
H.
,
2003
, “
Fatigue Life Models for SnAgCu and SnPb Solder Joints Evaluated by Experiments and Simulation
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, New Orleans, LA, May 27–30, pp.
603
610
.10.1109/ECTC.2003.1216343
73.
Pierce
,
D.
,
Sheppard
,
S.
,
Fossum
,
A.
,
Vianco
,
P.
, and
Neilsen
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Development of the Damage State Variable for a Unified Creep Plasticity Damage Constitutive Model of the 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu Lead-Free Solder
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
130
(
1
), p.
011002
.10.1115/1.2837513
74.
Vianco
,
P.
,
2005
, “
Fatigue and Creep of Pb-Free Solder Alloys: Fundamental Properties
,”
Lead-Free Soldering
,
D.
Shangguan
, ed.,
ASM International
, Cleveland, OH, pp.
67
106
.
75.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Zhang
,
Q.
,
Li
,
M.
,
Yeung
,
K.
,
Cheung
,
Y.
,
Fan
,
N.
,
Wong
,
Y.
,
Zahn
,
M.
, and
Koh
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Stencil Printing of Underfill for Flip Chips on Organic-Panel and Si-Wafer Substrates
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
5
(
7
), pp.
1027
1035
.10.1109/TCPMT.2015.2443841
76.
Hsieh
,
M. C.
,
Wu
,
S. T.
,
Wu
,
C. J.
, and
Lau
,
J. H.
,
2014
, “
Energy Release Rate Estimation for Through Silicon Vias in 3-D Integration
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
4
, pp.
57
65
.10.1109/TCPMT.2013.2283503
77.
Lee
,
C.-K.
,
Chang
,
T.-C.
,
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Huang
,
Y.-J.
,
Fu
,
H.-C.
,
Huang
,
J.-H.
,
Hsiao
,
Z.-C.
,
Ko
,
C.-T.
,
Cheng
,
R.-S.
,
Chang
,
P.-C.
,
Kao
,
K.-S.
,
Lu
,
Y.-L.
,
Lo
,
R.
, and
Kao
,
M.-J.
,
2012
, “
Wafer Bumping, Assembly, and Reliability of Fine-Pitch Lead-Free Micro Solder Joints for 3-D IC Integration
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
2
(
8
), pp.
1229
1238
.10.1109/TCPMT.2012.2189397
78.
Chai
,
T. C.
,
Zhang
,
X.
,
Li
,
H.
,
Sekhar
,
V.
,
Kalandar
,
O.
,
Khan
,
N.
,
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Murthy
,
R.
,
Tan
,
Y.
,
Cheng
,
C.
,
Liew
,
S.
, and
Chi
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Impact of Packaging Design on Reliability of Large Die Cu/Low-κ (BD) Interconnect
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
2
(
5
), pp.
807
816
.10.1109/TCPMT.2011.2182351
79.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Zhang
,
M. S.
, and
Lee
,
S. W. R.
,
2011
, “
Embedded 3D Hybrid IC Integration System-in-Package (SiP) for Opto-Electronic Interconnects in Organic Substrates
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
133
(
3
), p.
031010
.10.1115/1.4004861
80.
Chai
,
T. C.
,
Zhang
,
X.
,
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Selvanayagam
,
C. S.
,
Pinjala
,
D.
, and
Hoe
,
Y.
,
2011
, “
Development of Large Die Fine-Pitch Cu/Low-k FCBGA Package With Through Silicon Via (TSV) Interposer
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
1
(
5
), pp.
660
672
.10.1109/TCPMT.2010.2101911
81.
Dauksher
,
W.
, and
Lau
,
J. H.
,
2009
, “
A Finite-Element-Based Solder-Joint Fatigue-Life Prediction Methodology for Sn–Ag–Cu Ball-Grid-Array Packages
,”
IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab.
,
9
(
2
), pp.
231
236
.10.1109/TDMR.2009.2014943
82.
Selvanayagam
,
C.
,
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Zhang
,
X.
,
Seah
,
S.
,
Vaidyanathan
,
K.
, and
Chai
,
T. C.
,
2009
, “
Nonlinear Thermal Stress/Strain Analyses of Copper Filled TSV (Through Silicon Via) and Their Flip-Chip Microbumps
,”
IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag.
,
32
, pp.
720
728
.10.1109/TADVP.2009.2021661
83.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Mei
,
Z.
,
Pang
,
S.
,
Amsden
,
C.
,
Rayner
,
J.
, and
Pan
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Creep Analysis and Thermal-Fatigue Life Prediction of the Lead-Free Solder Sealing Ring of a Photonic Switch
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
124
(
4
), pp.
403
410
.10.1115/1.1512294
84.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2002
, “
Effects of Build-Up Printed Circuit Board Thickness on the Solder Joint Reliability of a Wafer Level Chip Scale Package (WLCSP)
,”
IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol.
,
25
(
1
), pp.
3
14
.10.1109/6144.991169
85.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Pan
,
S.
, and
Chang
,
C.
,
2002
, “
A New Thermal-Fatigue Life Prediction Model for Wafer Level Chip Scale Package (WLCSP) Solder Joints
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
124
(
3
), pp.
212
220
.10.1115/1.1462625
86.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lee
,
R.
,
Pan
,
S.
, and
Chang
,
C.
,
2002
, “
Nonlinear Time-Dependent Analysis of Micro Via-in-Pad Substrates for Solder Bumped Flip Chip Applications
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
124
(
3
), pp.
205
211
.10.1115/1.1462626
87.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2001
, “
Computational Analysis on the Effects of Double-Layer Build-Up Printed Circuit Board on the Wafer Level Chip Scale Package (WLCSP) Assembly With Pb-Free Solder Joints
,”
Int. J. Microcircuits Electron. Packaging, IMAPS Trans.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
89
104
.http://hdl.handle.net/1783.1/13821
88.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lee
,
R.
, and
Chang
,
C.
,
2000
, “
Solder Joint Reliability of Wafer Level Chip Scale Package (WLCSP): A Time-Temperature-Dependent Creep Analysis
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
122
(
4
), pp.
311
316
.10.1115/1.1289769
89.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Dauksher
,
W.
,
2004
, “
Creep Constitutive Equations of Sn(3.5-3.9)wt%Ag(0.5-0.8)wt%Cu Lead-Free Solder Joints
,”
MicroMaterails and Nanomaterials
,
B.
Michel
, ed., pp.
54
62
.
90.
Garofalo
,
F.
,
1965
,
Fundamentals of Creep and Creep-Rupture in Metals
,
Macmillan Publishing
,
New York
.
91.
Grama
,
S.
,
Subramanian
,
S.
, and
Pierron
,
F.
,
2015
, “
On the Identifibility of Anand Visco-Plastic Model Parameters Using the Virtual Fields Method
,”
Acta Mater.
,
86
, pp.
118
136
.10.1016/j.actamat.2014.11.052
92.
Chen
,
G.
,
Zhao
,
X.
, and
Wu
,
H.
,
2017
, “
A Critical Review of Constitutive Models for Solders in Electronic Packaging
,”
Adv. Mech. Eng.
,
9
(
8
), pp.
1
21
.10.1177/1687814017714976
93.
Anand
,
L.
,
1982
, “
Constitutive Equations for the Rate-Dependent Deformation of Metals at Elevated Temperatures
,”
ASME, J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
104
(
1
), pp.
12
17
.10.1115/1.3225028
94.
Deshpande
,
A.
,
Khan
,
H.
,
Mirza
,
F.
, and
Agonafer
,
D.
,
2014
, “
Global-Local Finite Element Optimization Study to Minimize BGA Damage Under Thermal Cycling
,”
IEEE/ITHERM Proceedings
, Orlando, FL, May 27–30, pp.
483
487
.10.1109/ITHERM.2014.6892321
95.
Motalab
,
M.
,
Basit
,
M.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
,
Bozack
,
M. J.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Creep Test Method for Determination of Anand Parameters for Lead Free Solders and Their Variation With Aging
,”
IEEE/ITHERM Proceedings
, Orlando, FL, May 27–30, pp.
127
143
.10.1109/ITHERM.2014.6892273
96.
Basit
,
M.
,
Ahmed
,
S.
,
Motalab
,
M.
,
Roberts
,
J. C.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2016
, “
The Anand Parameters for SAC Solders After Extreme Aging
,”
IEEE/ITHERM Proceedings
, Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp.
440
448
.10.1109/ITHERM.2016.7517582
97.
Motalab
,
M.
,
Cai
,
Z.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Determination of Anand Constants for SAC Solders Using Stress-Strain or Creep Data
,”
IEEE/ITHERM Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 1, pp.
910
923
.10.1109/ITHERM.2012.6231522
98.
Fan
,
X.
,
Raiser
,
G.
, and
Vasudevan
,
V.
,
2005
, “
Effects of Dwell Time and Ramp Rate on Lead-Free Solder Joints in FCBGA Packages
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 31–June 3, pp.
901
906
.10.1109/ECTC.2005.1441379
99.
Motalab
,
M.
,
Cai
,
Z.
,
Suhling
,
J. C.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Evans
,
J.
,
Bozack
,
M. J.
, and
Lall
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Improved Predictions of Lead Free Solder Joint Reliability That Include Aging Effects
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 29–June 1, pp.
513
531
.10.1109/ECTC.2012.6248879
100.
Jin
,
T.
,
2017
, “
Investigation on Viscoplastic Properties of Au-Sn Die-Attach Solder
,”
Master thesis
,
Delft University of Technology
, Delft, The Netherlands.https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid:7bbb41c6-7e79-44fc-9901-377f739e2a0d/datastream/OBJ/download
101.
Hamdani
,
H.
,
Radi
,
B.
, and
Elhami
,
A.
,
2017
, “
Submodeling Technique for Assessment and Numerical Prediction of Solder Joints Failures in Mechatronic Devices
,”
13th Mechanical Congress
, Meknes, Morocco, Apr. 11–14, pp.
1
3
.https://cmm2017.sciencesconf.org/129314/document
102.
Wang
,
G.
,
Cheng
,
Z.
,
Becker
,
K.
, and
Wilde
,
J.
,
2001
, “
Applying Anand Model to Represent the Viscoplastic Deformation Behavior of Solder Alloys
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
123
(
3
), pp.
247
253
.10.1115/1.1371781
103.
Zhang
,
L.
,
Xue
,
S.
,
Gao
,
L.
,
Zeng
,
G.
,
Sheng
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
Y.
, and
Yu
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Determination of Anand Parameters for SnAgCuCe Solder
,”
Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.
,
17
(
7
), p.
075014
.10.1088/0965-0393/17/7/075014
104.
Zhang
,
L.
,
Liu
,
Z.
, and
Ji
,
Y.
,
2016
, “
Anand Constitutive Model of Lead-Free Solder Joint in 3D IC Device
,”
Journal of Physics: Fifth International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Science
, Athens, Greece, May 23–26, pp.
1
8
.https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/738/1/012050
105.
Zhang
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
Z.
,
Liu
,
S.
, and
Dong
,
F.
,
2019
, “
Parameter Identification of Anand Constitutive Models for SAC305 Using the Intelligent Optimization Algorithm
,”
IEEE/EPTC Proceedings
, Singapore, Dec. 4–6, pp.
133
137
.10.1109/EPTC47984.2019.9026663
106.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
1993
, “
Thermomechanics for Electronic Packaging
,”
Thermal Stress and Strain in Microelectronics Packaging
,
J. H.
Lau
, ed.,
Van Nostrand Reinhold
,
New York
.
107.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Dauksher
,
W.
,
2005
, “
Thermal-Mechanical Analysis of a Flip-Chip VCSEL (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) Package With Low-Temperature Lead-Free (Sn-Bi) Solder Joints
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2005-79981
.10.1115/IMECE2005-79981
108.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Dauksher
,
W.
,
2006
, “
Thermal Stress Analysis of a Flip-Chip Parallel VCSEL (Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser) Package With Low-Temperature Lead-Free (48Sn-52In) Solder Joints
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 30–June 2, pp.
1009
1017
.10.1109/ECTC.2006.1645777
109.
Frost
,
H. J.
, and
Ashby
,
M. F.
,
1982
,
Deformation-Mechanism Maps: The Plasticity and Creep of Metals and Ceramics
,
Pergamum Press
,
New York
.
110.
Fung
,
Y. C.
,
1965
,
Foundations of Solid Mechanics
,
Prentice Hall
,
New York
.
111.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
1993
, “
Creep of 96.5Sn3.5Ag Solder Interconnects
,”
J. Soldering Surf. Mount Technol.
,
5
(
3
), pp.
45
49
.10.1108/eb037839
112.
Mei
,
Z.
, and
Morris
,
J.
,
1992
, “
Superplastic Creep of Low Melting Point Solder Joints
,”
J. Electron. Mater.
,
21
(
4
), pp.
401
407
.10.1007/BF02660403
113.
Bailey
,
C.
,
Rajaguru
,
P.
,
Lu
,
H.
,
Castellazzi
,
A.
,
Antonini
,
M.
,
Pathirana
,
V.
,
Udugampola
,
N.
,
Udrea
,
F.
,
Mitchelson
,
P.
, and
Aldhaher
,
S.
,
2018
, “
Mechanical Modelling of High Power Lateral IGBT for LED Driver Applications
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 29–June 1, pp.
1375
1381
.10.1109/ECTC.2018.00210
114.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
1993
, “
Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction of Flip Chip Solder Joints by Fracture Mechanics Method
,”
Int. J. Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
45
(
5
), pp.
643
654
.10.1016/0013-7944(93)90270-3
115.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
1999
,
Chip Scale Package: Design, Materials, Process, Reliability, and Applications
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
116.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
2011
,
Reliability of RoHS Compliant 2D & 3D IC Interconnects
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
117.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lee
,
S. W. R.
, and
Chang
,
C.
,
2001
, “
Solder Joint Crack Propagation Analysis of Wafer-Level Chip Scale Package on Printed Circuit Board Assemblies
,”
IEEE Trans. CPMT
,
24
(
2
), pp.
285
292
.10.1109/6144.926395
118.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Pan
,
S.
, and
Chang
,
C.
,
2001
, “
Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics Analysis of Wafer Level Chip Scale Package Solder Joints With Cracks
,”
Int. J. Microcircuits Electron. Packag.
,
24
(
1
), pp.
1
10
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228490377_Nonlinear_fracture_mechanics_analysis_of_wafer_level_chip_scale_package_solder_joints_with_cracks
119.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Shangguan
,
D.
,
Lau
,
D.
,
Kung
,
T.
, and
Lee
,
R.
,
2004
, “
Thermal-Fatigue Life Prediction Equation for Wafer-Level Chip Scale Package (WLCSP) Lead-Free Solder Joints on Lead-Free Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
,”
IEEE Proceedings of Electronics and Component Technology Conference
, Las Vegas, NV, June 4, pp.
1563
1569
.10.1109/ECTC.2004.1320324
120.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lee
,
R.
, and
Shangguan
,
D.
,
2004
, “
Thermal Fatigue-Life Prediction of Lead-Free Solder Joints
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2004-62493.10.1115/IMECE2004-62493
121.
Lau
,
J. R.
,
Lee
,
D.
, and
Shangguan
,
D.
,
2004
, “
Thermal-Fatigue Life Prediction Equations for Real Lead-Free Solder Joints on Real Lead-Free Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2004 - 6249210.1115/IMECE2004 - 62492.
122.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Lee
,
R. S. W.
,
2001
,
Microvias for Low-Cost and High-Density Interconnects
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
123.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
2019
,
Heterogeneous Integrations
,
Springer
,
New York
.
124.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Song
,
F.
,
Lau
,
D.
,
Lee
,
R.
,
Shangguan
,
D.
, and
Dauksher
,
W.
,
2005
, “
Thermal-Fatigue Life Prediction Equation for Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA) SnAgCu Lead-Free Solder Joints
,”
ASME
Paper No. IPACK2005-73362.10.1115/IPACK2005-73362
125.
Lau
,
J. H.
,
Lee
,
R.
,
Song
,
F.
,
Lau
,
D.
, and
Shangguan
,
D.
,
2006
, “
Isothermal Fatigue Tests of Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA) SnAgCu Lead-Free Solder Joints at 60 °C
,”
IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference Proceedings
, New Orleans, LA, May 30–June 2, pp.
229
236
.10.1109/ECTC.2006.1645851
126.
Su
,
S.
,
Akkara
,
F.
,
Thaper
,
R.
,
Alkhazali
,
A.
,
Hamasha
,
M.
, and
Hamasha
,
S.
,
2019
, “
A State-of-the-Art Review of Fatigue Life Prediction Models for Solder Joint
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
141
(
4
), p.
040802
.10.1115/1.4043405
127.
Lee
,
W. W.
,
Nguyen
,
L. T.
, and
Selvaduray
,
G. S.
,
2000
, “
Solder Joint Fatigue Models: Review and Applicability to Chip Scale Packages
,”
Microelectron. Reliab.
,
40
(
2
), pp.
231
244
.10.1016/S0026-2714(99)00061-X
128.
Syed
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Accumulated Creep Strain and Energy Density Based Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction Models for SnAgCu Solder Joints
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Las Vegas, NV, June 4, pp.
737
746
.10.1109/ECTC.2004.1319419
129.
Li
,
X.
,
Sun
,
R.
, and
Wang
,
Y.
,
2017
, “
A Review of Typical Thermal Fatigue Failure Models for Solder Joints of Electronic Components
,”
IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng.
,
242
, p.
012103
.10.1088/1757-899X/242/1/012103
130.
Borgesen
,
P.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
,
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Khasawneh
,
S.
,
Shirazi
,
S.
,
Schmitz
,
D.
,
Alghoul
,
T.
,
Greene
,
C.
, and
Yin
,
L.
,
2018
, “
A Mechanistic Thermal Fatigue Model for SnAgCu Solder Joints
,”
Miner., Met. Mater. Soc.
,
47
(
5
), pp.
2526
2544
.10.1007/s11664-018-6121-0
131.
Wu
,
L.
,
Han
,
X.
,
Shao
,
C.
,
Yao
,
F.
, and
Yang
,
W.
,
2019
, “
Thermal Fatigue Modelling and Simulation of Flip Chip Component Solder Joints Under Cyclic Thermal Loading
,”
Energies
,
12
(
12
), pp.
1
13
.10.3390/en12122391
132.
Le
,
V.
,
Benabou
,
L.
,
Tao
,
Q.
, and
Etgens
,
V.
,
2017
, “
Modeling of Intergranular Thermal Fatigue Cracking of a Lead-Free Solder Joint in a Power Electronic Module
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
106-107
, pp.
1
12
.10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2016.12.003
133.
Long
,
X.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Yao
,
Y.
,
Jia
,
F.
, )
Zhou
,
C.
,
Fu
,
Y.
, and
Wu
,
Y.
,
2018
, “
Constitutive Behaviour and Life Evaluation of Solder Joint Under the Multi-Field Loadings
,”
AIP Adv.
,
8
(
8
), p.
085001
.10.1063/1.5044446
134.
Thambi
,
J. L.
,
2018
, “
Reliability Assessment of Lead- Free Solder Joint, Based on High Cycle Fatigue & Creep Studies on Bulk Specimen
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
Technical University of Berlin
, Berlin, Germany.https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Reliability-assessment-of-lead-free-solder-joint%2C-%26-Thambi/0482bfb52d99a067d56bd794da1c37ead5ed4689
135.
Wu
,
S. C.
,
Zhang
,
S. Q.
, and
Xu
,
Z. W.
,
2016
, “
Thermal Crack Growth-Based Fatigue Life Prediction Due to Braking for a High-Speed Railway Brake Disc
,”
Int. J. Fatigue
,
87
, pp.
359
369
.10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2016.02.024
136.
Santecchia
,
E.
,
Hamouda
,
A. M. S.
,
Musharavati
,
F.
,
Zalnezhad
,
E.
,
Cabibbo
,
M.
,
Mehtedi
,
M. E.
, and
Spigarelli
,
S.
,
2016
, “
A Review on Fatigue Life Prediction Methods for Metals
,”
Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng.
,
2016
, pp.
1
24
.10.1155/2016/9573524
137.
Hu
,
W.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Sun
,
Y.
, and
Mosleh
,
A.
,
2016
, “
A Model of BGA Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction Considering Load Sequence Effects
,”
Materials
,
9
(
10
), pp.
860
877
.10.3390/ma9100860
138.
Maligno
,
A.
,
Whalley
,
D.
, and
Silberschmidt
,
V.
,
2012
, “
Thermal Fatigue Life Estimation and Fracture Mechanics Studies of Multilayered MEMS Structures Using a Sub-Domain Approach
,”
World J. Mech.
,
02
(
02
), pp.
61
76
.10.4236/wjm.2012.22008
139.
Hsu
,
Y.
,
Su
,
C.
, and
Wu
,
W.
,
2013
,
Thermal-Cyclic Fatigue Life Analysis and Reliability Estimation of a FCCSP Based on Probabilistic Design Concept
, Vol.
36
,
Tech Science Press
, Henderson, Nevada, pp.
155
176
.
140.
Han
,
Z.
, and
Huang
,
X.
,
2019
, “
GA-BP in Thermal Fatigue Failure Prediction of Microelectronic Chips
,”
Electronics
,
8
(
5
), pp.
542
556
.10.3390/electronics8050542
141.
Terasaki
,
T.
,
Tanie
,
H.
,
Chiwata
,
N.
,
Wakano
,
M.
, and
Fujiyoshi
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Use of Modified Accumulated Damage Model to Predict Fatigue Failure Lives of Sn-Ag-Cu-Based Solder Joints in Ball-Grid-Array-Type Packages
,”
Trans. Jpn. Inst. Electron. Packag.
,
5
(
1
), pp.
1
11
.10.5104/jiepeng.5.1
142.
Agrawal
,
R.
,
Uddanwadiker
,
R.
, and
Padole
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction
,”
Int. J. Emerging Eng. Res. Technol.
,
2
(
4
), pp.
5
15
.http://www.ijeert.org/pdf/v2-i4/2.pdf
143.
Mi
,
J.
,
Li
,
Y.
,
Yang
,
Y.
,
Peng
,
W.
, and
Huang
,
H.
,
2014
, “
Thermal Cycling Life Prediction of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joint Using Type-I Censored Data
,”
Sci. World J.
,
2014
, pp.
1
11
.10.1155/2014/807693
144.
Zhang
,
X.
,
Lee
,
R.
, and
Pao
,
Y.
,
2000
, “
A Damage Evolution Model for Thermal Fatigue Analysis of Solder Joints
,”
ASME J. Electron. Packag.
,
122
(
3
), pp.
200
206
.10.1115/1.1286121
145.
Batieha
,
F.
,
Hamasha
,
S.
,
Jaradat
,
Y.
,
Wentlent
,
L.
,
Qasaimeh
,
A.
, and
Borgesen
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Challenges for the Prediction of Solder Joint Life in Long Term Vibration
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 26–29, pp.
1553
1559
.10.1109/ECTC.2015.7159804
146.
Ketan
,
R.
,
Canumalla
,
S.
,
Nguyen
,
T.
,
Kirloskar
,
M.
, and
Qiu
,
X.
,
2016
, “
Enhancing Thermal Fatigue Reliability of Large CLCC Package
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp.
1370
1376
.10.1109/ECTC.2016.223
147.
Baber
,
F.
, and
Guven
,
I.
,
2016
, “
Solder Joint Fatigue Life Prediction of Electronic Packages Using Combined FEA and Peridynamics
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp.
225
231
.10.1109/ECTC.2016.374
148.
Wu
,
K. C.
,
Lee
,
C. H.
, and
Chiang
,
K.-N.
,
2016
, “
Characterization of Thermal Cycling Ramp Rate and Dwell Time Effects on AF (Acceleration Factor) Estimation
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp.
251
256
.10.1109/ECTC.2016.18
149.
Ramachandran
,
V.
,
Wu
,
K. C.
,
Lee
,
C. C.
, and
Chiang
,
K. N.
,
2018
, “
Reliability Life Assessment of WLCSP Using Different Creep Models
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, San Diego, CA, May 29–June 1, pp.
1017
1022
.10.1109/ECTC.2018.00156
150.
Wang
,
W.
,
Glancey
,
C.
, and
Robbins
,
D.
,
2016
, “
Simulation Model to Predict Failure Cycles in Board Level Drop Test
,”
IEEE/ECTC Proceedings
, Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp.
1886
1890
.10.1109/ECTC.2016.393
151.
Perkins
,
A.
, and
Sitaraman
,
S.
,
2008
,
Solder Joint Reliability Prediction for Multiple Environments
,
Springer
,
New York
.
152.
Pang
,
J.
,
2012
,
Lead Free Solder: Mechanics and Reliability
,
Springer
,
New York
.
153.
Wong
,
E.
, and
Mai
,
Y.
,
2015
,
Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture
,
Woodhead Publishing
,
Waltham, MA
.
154.
Tamin
,
M.
, and
Shaffiar
,
N.
,
2016
,
Solder Joint Reliability Assessment: Finite Element Simulation Methodology
,
Springer
,
New York
.
155.
Clech
,
J.
,
Coyle
,
R.
, and
Arfaei
,
B.
,
2019
, “
Pb-Free Solder Joint Thermo-Mechanical Modeling: State of the Art and Challenges
,”
J. Mater.
,
71
(
1
), pp.
143
157
.10.1007/s11837-018-3003-0
156.
Lau
,
J. H.
, and
Lee
,
N. C.
,
2020
, “Assembly and Reliability of Lead-Free Solder Joints,” Springer, Singapore.
You do not currently have access to this content.